Correction to Significance of Xenobiotic Metabolism for Bioaccumulation Kinetics of Organic Chemicals in Gammarus pulex.
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ABSTRACT: If an organism does not feed, it dies of starvation. Even though some insecticides which are used to control pests in agriculture can interfere with feeding behavior of insects and other invertebrates, the link from chemical exposure via affected feeding activity to impaired life history traits, such as survival, has not received much attention in ecotoxicology. One of these insecticides is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, a neurotoxic substance acting specifically on the insect nervous system. We show that imidacloprid has the potential to indirectly cause lethality in aquatic invertebrate populations at low, sublethal concentrations by impairing movements and thus feeding. We investigated feeding activity, lipid content, immobility, and survival of the aquatic arthropod Gammarus pulex under exposure to imidacloprid. We performed experiments with 14 and 21 days duration, both including two treatments with two high, one day pulses of imidacloprid and one treatment with a low, constant concentration. Feeding of G. pulex as well as lipid content were significantly reduced under exposure to the low, constant imidacloprid concentration (15 µg/L). Organisms were not able to move and feed - and this caused high mortality after 14 days of constant exposure. In contrast, feeding and lipid content were not affected by repeated imidacloprid pulses. In these treatments, animals were mostly immobilized during the chemical pulses but did recover relatively fast after transfer to clean water. We also performed a starvation experiment without exposure to imidacloprid which showed that starvation alone does not explain the mortality in the constant imidacloprid exposure. Using a multiple stressor toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic modeling approach, we showed that both starvation and other toxic effects of imidacloprid play a role for determining mortality in constant exposure to the insecticide.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e62472. · 3.53 Impact Factor
Correction to Significance of Xenobiotic Metabolism for
Bioaccumulation Kinetics of Organic Chemicals in Gammarus pulex
Roman Ashauer,* Anita Hintermeister, Isabel O’Connor, Maline Elumelu, Juliane Hollender,
and Beate I. Escher
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46 (6), 3498−3508. DOI: 10.1021/es204611h.
S Supporting Information
The authors regret that in our article1the data for
2,4-dichlorophenol (CAS 120-83-2) need to be corrected.
In Table 1 the corrected BAF of 2,4-dichlorophenol is 38
L/kgwet weight, the corrected MEFM1(2,4-dichlorophenol-sulfate)
is 1935 L/kgwet weight, and the corrected MEFM2 is 129
L/kgwet weight. In Table 2 the corrected model parameters (with
95% confidence intervals) for 2,4-dichlorophenol are 6815
(0; 62871) L × kg−1× d−1for kin_parent, 156 (0; 1594) d−1for
kout_parent, 21.27 (0; 48.6) d−1for kmet1, 0.415 (0.34; 0.49) d−1
for kloss_met1, 3.627 (0; 9.8) d−1for kmet2, and 1.063 (0; 2.69) for
The Supporting Information is also updated with the
corrected raw data for the biotransformation modeling and
Figure 1 shows the corrected time course of bioaccumulation,
biotransformation, and elimination kinetics for 2,4-dichlorophe-
nol and its metabolites (top part of Figure 3 in original article).
The corrected values do not change any conclusion in our article
because the relation of BAF to MEFs for 2,4-dichlorophenol did not
change and the compound had been excluded from the comparison
with the study based on total14C measurements. Note however,
that the corrected BAF and MEF values for 2,4-dichlorophenol are
higher than those originally published.
Updated with the corrected raw data for the biotransformation
modeling. This material is available free of charge via the
Internet at http://pubs.acs.org.
S Supporting Information
Published: March 29, 2012
Figure 1. Molecular structures, label positions, exposure concentration (left), bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and elimination kinetics (right,
transfer to fresh media indicated by dashed line), and model structure (middle) for 2,4-dichlorophenol.
(1) Ashauer, R.; Hintermeister, A.; O’Connor, I.; Elumelu, M.;
Hollender, J.; Escher, B. I. Significance of Xenobiotic Metabolism for
Bioaccumulation Kinetics of Organic Chemicals in Gammarus pulex.
Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46 (6), 3498−3508.
© 2012 American Chemical Society
dx.doi.org/10.1021/es301072j | Environ. Sci. Technol. 2012, 46, 4682−4682