Nonproteolytic properties of murine alternatively spliced tissue factor: implications for integrin-mediated signaling in murine models.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America.
Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.82). 04/2012; 18(1):771-9. DOI: 10.2119/molmed.2011.00416
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study was performed to determine whether murine alternatively spliced tissue factor (masTF) acts analogously to human alternatively spliced tissue factor (hasTF) in promoting neovascularization via integrin ligation. Immunohistochemical evaluation of a spontaneous murine pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma model revealed increased levels of masTF and murine full-length tissue factor (mflTF) in tumor lesions compared with benign pancreas; furthermore, masTF colocalized with mflTF in spontaneous aortic plaques of Ldlr(-/-) mice, indicating that masTF is likely involved in atherogenesis and tumorigenesis. Recombinant masTF was used to perform in vitro and ex vivo studies examining its integrin-mediated biologic activity. Murine endothelial cells (ECs) rapidly adhered to masTF in a β3-dependent fashion. Using adult and embryonic murine ECs, masTF potentiated cell migration in transwell assays. Scratch assays were performed using murine and primary human ECs; the effects of masTF and hasTF were comparable in murine ECs, but in human ECs, the effects of hasTF were more pronounced. In aortic sprouting assays, the potency of masTF-triggered vessel growth was undistinguishable from that observed with hasTF. The proangiogenic effects of masTF were found to be Ccl2-mediated, yet independent of vascular endothelial growth factor. In murine ECs, masTF and hasTF upregulated genes involved in inflammatory responses; murine and human ECs stimulated with masTF and hasTF exhibited increased interaction with murine monocytic cells under orbital shear. We propose that masTF is a functional homolog of hasTF, exerting some of its key effects via β3 integrins. Our findings have implications for the development of murine models to examine the interplay between blood coagulation, atherosclerosis and cancer.

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    ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF), the trigger of blood coagulation, is a 47 kDa membrane protein that also impacts on non-hemostatic processes, such as atherosclerosis, primary tumor growth and metastasis. TF binding to its ligand FVIIa induces activation of protease-activated receptor-2 and this event is thought to considerably influence atherosclerosis and tumor angiogenesis. TF-dependent activation of the coagulation cascade, rather than PAR-2 activation, then leads to the potentiation of metastasis. Importantly, a soluble alternatively spliced isoform of TF (asTF) has been discovered, but the function of asTF in hemostatic and non-hemostatic events is poorly understood. In this review, we aim to present a side-by-side evaluation of normally-spliced, full length TF (flTF) and asTF with regard to coagulant function, atherosclerosis, tumor progression and malignancy-associated thrombosis.
    Thrombosis Research 04/2012; 129 Suppl 1:S69-75. DOI:10.1016/S0049-3848(12)70020-8 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) triggers blood coagulation and is translated from two mRNA splice isoforms, encoding membrane-anchored full-length TF (flTF) and soluble alternatively-spliced TF (asTF). The complete knockout of TF in mice causes embryonic lethality associated with failure of the yolk sac vasculature. Although asTF plays roles in postnatal angiogenesis, it is unknown whether it activates coagulation sufficiently or makes previously unrecognized contributions to sustaining integrity of embryonic yolk sac vessels. Using gene knock-in into the mouse TF locus, homozygous asTF knock-in (asTFKI) mice, which express murine asTF in the absence of flTF, exhibited embryonic lethality between day 9.5 and 10.5. Day 9.5 homozygous asTFKI embryos expressed asTF protein, but no procoagulant activity was detectable in a plasma clotting assay. Although the α-smooth-muscle-actin positive mesodermal layer as well as blood islands developed similarly in day 8.5 wild-type or homozygous asTFKI embryos, erythrocytes were progressively lost from disintegrating yolk sac vessels of asTFKI embryos by day 10.5. These data show that in the absence of flTF, asTF expressed during embryonic development has no measurable procoagulant activity, does not support embryonic vessel stability by non-coagulant mechanisms, and fails to maintain a functional vasculature and embryonic survival.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97793. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097793 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue factor (TF) is an integral membrane protein that is essential to life. It is a component of the factor VIIa-TF complex enzyme and plays a primary role in both normal hemostasis and thrombosis. With a vascular injury, TF becomes exposed to blood and binds plasma factor VIIa, and the resulting complex initiates a series of enzymatic reactions leading to clot formation and vascular sealing. Many cells, both healthy, and tumor cells, produce detectable amounts of TF, especially when they are stimulated by various agents. Despite the relative simplicity and small size of TF, there are numerous contradictory reports about the synthesis and presentation of TF on blood cells and circulation in normal blood either on microparticles or as a soluble protein. Another subject of controversy is related to the structure/function of TF. It has been almost commonly accepted that cell-surface-associated TF has low (if any) activity, that is, is "encrypted" and requires specific conditions/reagents to become active, that is, "decrypted." However there is a lack of agreement related to the mechanism and processes leading to alterations in TF function. In this paper TF structure, presentation, and function, and controversies concerning these features are discussed.
    12/2012; 2012:964862. DOI:10.6064/2012/964862