Tezosentan inhibits uptake of proinflammatory endothelin-1 in stenotic aortic valves.
ABSTRACT Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is an actively regulated pathobiological process which has an inflammation origin, and manifests as an accumulation of lipids and, ultimately, calcification of the aortic valve tissue. Increased plasma levels of the proinflammatory factor endothelin-1 (ET-1) have been reported in AS. Moreover, increased tissue levels of ET-1 and its ET(A) receptor, which mediates the fibrotic and proliferative effects of ET-1, have been reported in stenotic aortic valves. The study aim was to determine whether endothelin receptor antagonism has an effect on the supposed receptor-mediated uptake of ET-1 to aortic valves when ET-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AS.
By using valve tissue explants in culture, it was determined whether the ET(A)-ET(B) receptor antagonist tezosentan was capable of reducing the uptake of 125I-labeled ET-1 to human aortic valves. Aortic valves were obtained from 16 patients (11 males, five females; mean age 71 +/- 11.2 years) and from two donors without AS (as controls) at the time of aortic valve or aortic root surgery. Valve tissue samples were cultured in ET-1 (10 nmol/l), in the presence or absence of tezosentan (10 nmol/l).
ET-1 uptake was found to be pronounced in the calcified areas of the valve, and tezosentan markedly reduced the receptor-mediated uptake of 125I-labeled ET-1. The inhibitory effect was most evident in the well-calcified part of the valve. The gene expression levels of the ET receptors ET(A) and ET(B) were unaltered in human aortic valves during a four-day exposure to the antagonist.
The ability of the ET(A)-ET(B) receptor antagonist tezosentan to inhibit ET-1 uptake in valve tissue suggests that continuous ET antagonist therapy might serve as new strategy to slow down the pathophysiological processes of AS.
Article: Characterization of the early lesion of 'degenerative' valvular aortic stenosis. Histological and immunohistochemical studies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nonrheumatic stenosis of trileaflet aortic valves, often termed senile or calcific valvular aortic stenosis, is considered a "degenerative" process, but little is known about the cellular or molecular factors that mediate its development. To characterize the developing aortic valvular lesion, we performed histological and immunohistochemical studies on Formalin-fixed and methanol-Carnoy's-fixed paraffin-embedded aortic valve leaflets or on frozen sections obtained at autopsy from 27 adults (age, 46 to 82 years) with normal leaflets (n = 6), mild macroscopic leaflet thickening (n = 15), or clinical aortic stenosis (n = 6). Focal areas of thickening ("early lesions") were characterized by (1) subendothelial thickening on the aortic side of the leaflet, between the basement membrane (PAS-positive) and elastic lamina (Verhoeff-van Gieson), (2) the presence of large amounts of intracellular and extracellular neutral lipids (oil red O) and fine, stippled mineralization (von Kossa), and (3) disruption of the basement membrane overlying the lesion. Regions of the fibrosa adjacent to these lesions were characterized by thickening and by protein, lipid, and calcium accumulation. Control valves showed none of these abnormalities. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using monoclonal antibodies directed against macrophages (anti-CD68 or HAM-56), and contractile proteins of smooth muscle cells or myofibroblasts (anti-alpha-actin and HHF-35) or rabbit polyclonal antiserum against T lymphocytes (anti-CD3). In normal valves, scattered macrophages were present in the fibrosa and ventricularis, and occasional muscle actin-positive cells were detected in the proximal portion of the ventricularis near the leaflet base, but no T lymphocytes were found. In contrast, early lesions were characterized by the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate composed of non-foam cell and foam cell macrophages, occasional T cells, and rare alpha-actin-positive cells. In stenotic aortic valves, a similar but more advanced lesion was seen. The early lesion of "degenerative" aortic stenosis is an active inflammatory process with some similarities (lipid deposition, macrophage and T-cell infiltration, and basement membrane disruption) and some dissimilarities (presence of prominent mineralization and small numbers of smooth muscle cells) to atherosclerosis.Circulation 09/1994; 90(2):844-53. · 14.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to analyze if LDL particles trapped in stenotic aortic valve tissue undergo oxidative modification. Degenerative aortic stenosis affects >3% of the population >75 years of age in the Western world. Recent studies have revealed the presence of a chronic inflammatory process similar to what has been described in other degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis. However, the underlying disease mechanisms of degenerative aortic stenosis still remain largely unknown. Six tricuspid stenotic valves, obtained at valve replacement, were compared with 3 control valves collected from hearts taken out during transplantation. The stenotic valves and the control valves were examined by immunohistochemistry, using antibodies against apoB, 4-hydroxynonenal-modified LDL, leukocytes, and HLA-DR. All valves were also stained with oil red O for neutral lipids. Extracellular neutral lipids were found in all stenotic valves, extending from the bases along the fibrosa layer. This lipid colocalized with apoB- and 4-hydroxynonenal-modified LDL immunoreactivity. 4-Hydroxynonenal-modified LDLs were present around calcium deposits, subendothelially, and in the deeper layer of the fibrosa. There was also a colocalization with macrophages, T lymphocytes, and HLA-DR expression. Control valves had a thin area of neutral lipid accumulation, a small amount of apoB, but no signs of inflammation. A distinct colocalization between oxidized LDLs, T-lymphocyte accumulation, and calcium deposits suggests that oxidized lipids may play a role in the disease process.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 05/1999; 19(5):1218-22. · 6.37 Impact Factor
Article: Expression of HLA-DR antigen and smooth muscle cell differentiation markers by valvular fibroblasts in degenerative aortic stenosis.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to analyze the functional characteristics of fibroblasts present in aortic valves with degenerative stenosis. Morphologic analysis of degenerative stenosis of tricuspid aortic valves has revealed an extensive interstitial fibrosis. Stenotic aortic valves collected during aortic valve replacement and control valves collected at autopsy were fixed in formaldehyde, cryosectioned and stained with antibodies against leukocyte markers, HLA-DR and intracellular filaments. Fibroblasts isolated from stenotic valve and skin explants were grown in cell culture, and their proliferative activity was analyzed by cell counting and uptake of tritiated thymidine. In the stenotic valves nearly all interstitial cells expressed vimentin, and approximately 60% of the cells also expressed alpha-actin and desmin. HLA-DR was present on inflammatory cells as well as on one-third of the fibroblast-like cells in the interstitium. Macrophages were found in the interstitium and T lymphocytes close to calcium deposits and in subendothelial areas. In control valves, fibroblasts expressed vimentin but not alpha-actin or desmin. Few inflammatory cells were present in these valves, and HLA-DR expression was restricted to the endothelial surface. In culture, stenotic valve fibroblasts had a reduced ability to proliferate in serum and to activate DNA synthesis in response to growth factors compared with skin fibroblasts from the same patient. The observation that fibroblasts present in aortic valves with degenerative stenosis express smooth muscle cell characteristics and HLA-DR antigen and show signs of cellular senescence in vitro suggests that they are in a state of chronic activation similar to that observed in fibromatosis and scleroderma lesions.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/1995; 24(7):1664-71. · 14.16 Impact Factor