HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Therapy.
ABSTRACT The most significant advance in the medical management of HIV-1 infection has been the treatment of patients with antiviral drugs, which can suppress HIV-1 replication to undetectable levels. The discovery of HIV-1 as the causative agent of AIDS together with an ever-increasing understanding of the virus replication cycle have been instrumental in this effort by providing researchers with the knowledge and tools required to prosecute drug discovery efforts focused on targeted inhibition with specific pharmacological agents. To date, an arsenal of 24 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs are available for treatment of HIV-1 infections. These drugs are distributed into six distinct classes based on their molecular mechanism and resistance profiles: (1) nucleoside-analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), (2) non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), (3) integrase inhibitors, (4) protease inhibitors (PIs), (5) fusion inhibitors, and (6) coreceptor antagonists. In this article, we will review the basic principles of antiretroviral drug therapy, the mode of drug action, and the factors leading to treatment failure (i.e., drug resistance).
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ABSTRACT: Entry of HIV-1 into target cells requires cell-surface CD4 and additional host cell cofactors. A cofactor required for infection with virus adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines was recently identified and named fusin. However, fusin does not promote entry of macrophage-tropic viruses, which are believed to be the key pathogenic strains in vivo. The principal cofactor for entry mediated by the envelope glycoproteins of primary macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1 is CC-CKR-5, a receptor for the beta-chemokines RANTES, MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta.Nature 07/1996; 381(6584):661-6. · 36.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viral fitness has been broadly studied during the past three decades, mainly to test evolutionary models and population theories difficult to analyze and interpret with more complex organisms. More recent studies, however, are focused in the role of fitness on viral transmission, pathogenesis, and drug resistance. Here, we used human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as one of the most relevant models to evaluate the importance of viral quasispecies and fitness in HIV evolution, population dynamics, disease progression, and potential clinical implications.Current topics in microbiology and immunology 02/2006; 299:83-140. · 4.93 Impact Factor
Article: Comparison of raltegravir and elvitegravir on HIV-1 integrase catalytic reactions and on a series of drug-resistant integrase mutants.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HIV-1 integrase (IN) is the molecular target of the newly approved anti-AIDS drug raltegravir (MK-0518, Isentress) while elvitegravir (GS-9137, JTK-303) is in clinical trials. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate and compare the effects of raltegravir and elvitegravir on the three IN-mediated reactions, 3'-processing (3'-P), strand transfer (ST), and disintegration, (2) to determine the biochemical activities of seven IN mutants (T66I, L74M, E92Q, F121Y, Q148K, S153Y, and N155H) previously selected from drug-resistant patients and isolates, and (3) to determine the resistance profile for raltegravir and elvitegravir in those IN mutants. Our findings demonstrate that both raltegravir and elvitegravir are potent IN inhibitors and are highly selective for the ST reaction of IN. Elvitegravir was more potent than raltegravir, but neither drug could block disintegration. All resistance mutations were at least partially impaired for ST. Q148K was also markedly impaired for 3'-P. Both drugs exhibited a parallel resistance profile, although resistance was generally greater for elvitegravir. Q148K and T66I conferred the highest resistance to both drugs while S153Y conferred relatively greater resistance to elvitegravir than raltegravir. Drug resistance could not be overcome by preincubating the drugs with IN, consistent with the binding of raltegravir and elvitegravir at the IN-DNA interface. Finally, we found an inverse correlation between resistance and catalytic activity of the IN mutants.Biochemistry 10/2008; 47(36):9345-54. · 3.42 Impact Factor