Inhibitory Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation Induced by PDGF-BB Is Involved in Nitric Oxide Formation

Department of Pharmacology of Zunyi Medical College and the Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology of Guizhou, Zunyi 563003, China.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.88). 03/2012; 2012:314395. DOI: 10.1155/2012/314395
Source: PubMed


Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has been reported to suppress the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). This study aimed to observe the role of nitric oxide (NO) in Rg1-antiproliferative effect. VSMCs from the thoracic aorta of SD rats were cultured by tissue explant method, and the effect of Rg1 (20 mg·L(-1), 60 mg·L(-1), and 180 mg·L(-1)) on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay. The cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. For probing the mechanisms, the content of NO in supernatant and cGMP level in VSMCs was measured by nitric oxide kit and cGMP radio-immunity kit, respectively; the expressions of protooncogene c-fos and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) mRNA in the VSMCs were detected by real-time RT-PCR; the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2(+)](i)) was detected with Fura-2/AM-loaded VSMCs. Comparing with that in normal group, Rg1 180 mg·L(-1) did not change the absorbance of MTT and cell percent of G(0)/G(1), G(2)/M, and S phase in normal cells (P > 0.05). Contrarily, PDGF-BB could increase the absorbance of MTT (P < 0.01) and the percent of the S phase cells but decrease the G(0)/G(1) phase cell percent in the cell cycle, accompanied with an upregulating c-fos mRNA expression (P < 0.01), which was reversed by additions of Rg1(20 mg·L(-1), 60 mg·L(-1), and 180 mg·L(-1)). Rg1 administration could also significantly increase the NO content in supernatant and the cGMP level in VSMCs, as well as the eNOS mRNA expression in the cells, in comparison of that in the group treated with PDGF-BB alone (P < 0.01). Furthermore, Rg1 caused a further increase in the elevated [Ca(2+)](i) induced by PDGF-BB. It was concluded that Rg1 could inhibit the VSMC proliferation induced by PDGF-BB through restricting the G(0)/G(1) phase to S-phase progression in cell cycle. The mechanisms may be related to the upregulation of eNOS mRNA and the increase of the formation of NO and cGMP.

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