Presentations and outcomes of children with intraventricular hemorrhages after blunt head trauma.
ABSTRACT To describe the clinical presentations and outcomes of children with intraventricular hemorrhages (IVHs) after blunt head trauma (BHT).
Subanalysis of a large, prospective, observational cohort study performed from June 1, 2004, through September 31, 2006.
Twenty-five emergency departments participating in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. Patients Children presenting with IVH after BHT. Exposure Blunt head trauma.
Clinical presentations and outcomes, including the Pediatric Overall Performance Category (POPC) and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) scores at hospital discharge.
Of 15 907 patients evaluated with computed tomography, 1156 (7.3%) had intracranial injuries. Forty-three of the 1156 (3.7%; 95% CI, 2.7%-5.0%) had nonisolated IVHs (ie, with intracranial injuries on computed tomography), and 10 of 1156 (0.9%; 95% CI, 0.4%-1.6%) had isolated IVHs. Only 4 of 43 (9.3%) of those with nonisolated IVHs had Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 to 15, and all 10 (100.0%) with isolated IVHs had GCS scores of 15. No patients with isolated IVHs required neurosurgery or died. One patient had moderate overall disability (by the POPC score), and no patient had moderate or severe disability at discharge (by the PCPC score). Of the 43 patients with nonisolated IVHs, however, 16 (37.2%) died and 18 (41.9%) required neurosurgery. In 27 patients (62.8%), injuries ranged from moderate overall disability to brain death by the POPC score.
Children with nonisolated IVHs after BHT typically present with GCS scores of less than 14, frequently require neurosurgery, and have high mortality rates. In contrast, those with isolated IVHs typically present with normal mental status and are at low risk for acute adverse events and poor outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: Acute recognition and management of traumatic brain injury along the spectrum from mild to severe is essential in optimizing neurocognitive outcomes. Concussion is common following head trauma in children, and resulting symptoms can last for months if not diagnosed and managed properly. Emerging evidence and consensus demonstrate that a program of cognitive and physical activity with a graduated return to play, sport, and school may improve outcomes following concussion. "Return to Play" legislation for youth has been adopted by most states. Outcomes of patients with severe traumatic brain injury have improved.Pediatric Clinics of North America 10/2013; 60(5):1107-1122. · 2.20 Impact Factor