Understanding optimal colonic cancer surgery: comparison of Japanese D3 resection and European complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation.
ABSTRACT Over recent years, patient outcomes after colon cancer resection have not improved to the same degree as for rectal cancer. Japanese D3 resection and European complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL) are both based on sound oncologic principles. Expert surgeons using both techniques report impressive outcomes as compared with standard surgery. We aimed to independently compare the physical appearances and quality of specimens resected using both techniques in major institutions in Japan and Germany.
A series of resections for primary colon cancer from one European and two Japanese centers were independently assessed in terms of the plane of surgery, physical characteristics, and lymph node yields.
Mesocolic plane resection rates from both series were high; however, Japanese D3 specimens were significantly shorter (162 v 324 mm, P < .001), resulting in a smaller amount of mesentery (8,309 v 17,957 mm(2), P < .001) and nodal yield (median, 18 v 32, P < .001). The distance from the high vascular tie to the bowel wall (100 v 99 mm, P = .605) was equivalent.
Both techniques showed high mesocolic plane resection rates and long distances between the high tie and the bowel wall. The extended longitudinal resection after CME with CVL increased the nodal yield but did not increase the number of tumor involved nodes. Both series were oncologically superior to recently reported series from other countries and confirm the wide variation in colonic cancer surgery and the need for further standardization and optimization following the approach undertaken in improving rectal cancer outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of D3 lymph node dissection for patients with colon cancer remains controversial. This study aims to clarify the impact of D3 lymph node dissection on survival in patients with colon cancer. This is a retrospective cohort study from a prospectively registered multi-institutional database of colorectal cancer in Japan. Propensity score matching method was applied to balance potential confounders of the treatment. A cohort of 10,098 patients who underwent radical colectomy for pT3 and pT4 colon cancer between 1985 and 1994 were identified. A total of 3,425 propensity score matched pairs were extracted from the entire cohort. The primary outcome measure was overall survival (OS). In the entire cohort, there was a statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) between the patients who had D3 and D2 lymph node dissection (p = 0.00003). The estimated hazard ratio (HR) for OS of patients who had D3 versus D2 lymph node dissection was 0.827 (95 % confidence interval, 0.757 to 0.904). In the matched cohort, there was also a significant difference in OS between the two groups (p = 0.0001), and the estimated HR for OS was 0.814 (95 % confidence interval, 0.734 to 0.904). We found D3 lymph node dissection for pT3 and pT4 colon cancer to be associated with a significant survival advantage in a large-scale database, even after adjusting potential confounders of lymph node dissection. This finding may provide a rationale for D3 lymph node dissection in radical surgery for pT3 and pT4 colon cancer.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 05/2014; · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Complete mesocolic excision (CME) has recently been reemphasized as a technical approach for anatomical dissection during colon cancer surgery. Although a laparoscopic approach for right colon cancer is performed frequently, identifying an adequate dissection plane is not always easy. In our practice, the patient lies in a modified lithotomy position. The first step is ileocolic area mobilization, followed by adequate retraction of the cecum laterally. This procedure enables discrimination of the ileocolic vessels and superior mesenteric vessels. Importantly, this method facilitates identification of the superior mesenteric vein (SMV), followed by the identification of the root of ileocolic pedicles. After that, sharp dissection along the SMV in an upward direction helps to safely identify the middle colic artery (MCA). Dissection then continues to the level of the origin of MCA, after which the right branch of MCA can be divided. A total of 128 consecutive patients (63 males) who underwent laparoscopic CME for right colon cancer by a single surgeon were analyzed in this study. There was no conversion to open surgery. The median operation time was 192 min (interquartile range [IQR] 118-363 min). The median proximal and distal resection margins were 11 and 10 cm, respectively. The median number of harvested lymph nodes was 28 (IQR 3-88). There were six postoperative complications (4.6 %). The median hospital stay was 5 days (IQR 4-37 days). The video demonstrates a laparoscopic CME for a patient who had advanced distal ascending colon cancer. In conclusion, identifying the anatomical location of the SMV and performing meticulous dissection along the SMV is an essential procedure for containing all potential routes of metastatic tumors. Initial ileocecal mobilization with adequate counter traction of the cecum may be useful for novice surgeons attempting to identify the location of SMV during laparoscopic CME for right colon cancer.Surgical Endoscopy 04/2014; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The actual status of stage migration in colon cancer that occurs in the procedure of preparing pathological specimens of lymph nodes has not been fully investigated. A nationwide survey of specialist institutions for colon cancer treatment was conducted to clarify interinstitutional differences in processing surgical specimens. After categorizing 111 institutions on the basis of their practice of processing specimens, distribution of tumor stage and the recurrence status of 3294 colon cancer patients treated with the same level of lymphadenectomy were compared. Patients were diagnosed with lower tumor stages in non-teaching hospitals, in hospitals where lymph nodes were retrieved by less experienced clinicians and in hospitals in which lymph nodes were retrieved with procedures that preserved the planes of surgery around the primary tumor. However, the process of sectioning and embedding lymph nodes did not affect stage distribution. The average number of lymph nodes examined per case in each institute was 19.4. Institutional number of lymph nodes examined was not associated with node positivity but it did affect the substage in Stage III for number of lymph nodes examined ≥21. In contrast, none of the factors associated with stage migration caused interinstitutional differences in the recurrence status according to the tumor stage. Considerable variety in the processing of surgical specimens existed even within one country, which could be a cause of stage migration in colon cancer. Better awareness of the clinical impact of the lymph node retrieval process is needed; an international guideline to standardize the treatment of surgical specimens might increase the value of tumor staging.Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2014; · 1.90 Impact Factor