Understanding Optimal Colonic Cancer Surgery: Comparison of Japanese D3 Resection and European Complete Mesocolic Excision With Central Vascular Ligation
ABSTRACT Over recent years, patient outcomes after colon cancer resection have not improved to the same degree as for rectal cancer. Japanese D3 resection and European complete mesocolic excision (CME) with central vascular ligation (CVL) are both based on sound oncologic principles. Expert surgeons using both techniques report impressive outcomes as compared with standard surgery. We aimed to independently compare the physical appearances and quality of specimens resected using both techniques in major institutions in Japan and Germany.
A series of resections for primary colon cancer from one European and two Japanese centers were independently assessed in terms of the plane of surgery, physical characteristics, and lymph node yields.
Mesocolic plane resection rates from both series were high; however, Japanese D3 specimens were significantly shorter (162 v 324 mm, P < .001), resulting in a smaller amount of mesentery (8,309 v 17,957 mm(2), P < .001) and nodal yield (median, 18 v 32, P < .001). The distance from the high vascular tie to the bowel wall (100 v 99 mm, P = .605) was equivalent.
Both techniques showed high mesocolic plane resection rates and long distances between the high tie and the bowel wall. The extended longitudinal resection after CME with CVL increased the nodal yield but did not increase the number of tumor involved nodes. Both series were oncologically superior to recently reported series from other countries and confirm the wide variation in colonic cancer surgery and the need for further standardization and optimization following the approach undertaken in improving rectal cancer outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: In colon cancer (CC), nodal involvement is the main prognostic factor following potentially curative (R0) resection. The purpose of this study was to examine data from the literature to provide an up-to-date analysis of the management of nodal disease with special reference to laparoscopic treatment. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for potentially eligible studies published in English up to July 15, 2014. In CC, nodal involvement is a frequent event and represents the main risk of cancer recurrence. Node negative patients recur in 10-30 % of cases most likely due to underdiagnosed or undertreated nodal disease. Extended colonic resections (complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation; D3 lymphadenectomy) provides a survival benefit and better local control. Sentinel lymph node mapping in addition to standard surgical resection represents an option for improving staging of clinical node negative patients. Both extended resection and sentinel lymph node mapping are feasible in a laparoscopic setting. Both extended colonic resection and sentinel lymph node mapping should play a role in the laparoscopic treatment of CC with the purpose of improving control and staging of nodal disease.International Journal of Colorectal Disease 11/2014; 30(3). DOI:10.1007/s00384-014-2075-8 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background: Laparoscopic colectomy has become accepted for resection of colon cancer, and laparoscopic complete mesocolic excision (CME) has proved feasible and safe. We have evaluated the safety, efficacy, and feasibility of laparoscopic CME via reduced port surgery (RPS) in patients with colon cancer. Methods: We prospectively assessed 17 consecutive patients with colon cancer undergoing laparoscopic CME via RPS between February 2012 and January 2014. Video recordings were used to assess the quality of the surgery, including CME completion. We also assessed operative data, complications, pathological findings, visual analog scale (VAS), cosmesis, and the hospital length of stay. Results: All patients underwent en bloc resection of mesocolon with CME completion. The median surgical duration and blood loss were 298 min and 41 ml, respectively. No intraoperative complications occurred in any patient. The median number of lymph nodes retrieved was 20, with lymph node metastasis identified in eight patients. The mean VAS scores for postoperative days 1, 3, and 7 were 3.2, 1.5, and 0, respectively. All patients were satisfied with their cosmesis. The median postoperative hospital stay was 11 days. Conclusions: Laparoscopic CME via RPS for colon cancer is a safe and feasible surgical procedure with cosmetic advantages. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.Digestive Surgery 01/2015; 32(1):45-51. DOI:10.1159/000373895 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the introduction of total mesorectal excision as the standard approach in mid and low rectal cancer, the incidence of local recurrence has sharply declined. Similar attention to surgical technique in colon cancer (CC) has resulted in the concept of complete mesocolic excision (CME), which consists of complete removal of the intact mesentery and high ligation of the vascular supply at its origin. Although renewed attention to meticulous surgical technique certainly has its merits, routine implementation of CME is currently unfounded. Firstly, in contrast to rectal cancer, local recurrence originating from an incompletely removed mesentery is rare in CC and usually a manifestation of systemic disease. Secondly, although CME may increase nodal counts and therefore staging accuracy, this is unlikely to affect survival since the observed relationship between nodal counts and outcome in CC is most probably not causal but confounded by a range of clinical variables. Thirdly, several lines of evidence suggest that metastasis to locoregional nodes occurs early and is a stochastic rather than a stepwise phenomenon in CC, in essence reflecting the tumor-host-metastasis relationship. Unsurprisingly, therefore, comparative studies in CC as well as in other digestive cancers have failed to demonstrate any survival benefit associated with extensive, additional or extra-mesenteric lymphadenectomy. Finally, routine implementation of CME may cause patient harm by longer operating times, major vascular damage and autonomic nerve injury. Therefore, data from randomized trials reporting relevant endpoints are required before CME can be recommended as a standard approach in CC surgery.World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2015; 21(1):132-138. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v21.i1.132 · 2.43 Impact Factor