Effects of cinacalcet in renal transplant patients with hyperparathyroidism.
ABSTRACT Cinacalcet decreases serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium concentrations in kidney transplant recipients with autonomous hyperparathyroidism. Long-term treatment with cinacalcet may increase urinary calcium excretion and the risk of renal calcium deposits and may alter renal graft function.
We studied 71 renal recipients with hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism. Of these patients, 34 received cinacalcet between month 3 and month 12 after renal transplantation. We compared phosphate calcium balance, measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal biopsies in cinacalcet-treated and non-cinacalcet-treated patients. Measurements were performed before initiating cinacalcet treatment (month 3) and at month 12.
Patients treated with cinacalcet had more severe hyperparathyroidism. Serum PTH concentration decreased in both groups between months 3 and 12, but the decrease was much more important in cinacalcet-treated patients. Urinary calcium excretion significantly increased under cinacalcet treatment and was more than twice as high at month 12 as in patients who did not receive cinacalcet treatment. However, the hypercalciuria was not associated with an increase in calcium deposits on renal biopsies or an alteration of measured GFR.
Despite sustained and marked hypercalciuria induced by cinacalcet treatment, cinacalcet does not have adverse effects on GFR or on renal graft calcium deposits in the first year following renal transplantation.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Kidney transplantation, the most effective treatment for the metabolic abnormalities of chronic kidney disease (CKD), only partially corrects CKD-mineral and bone disorders. Posttransplantation bone disease, one of the major complications of kidney transplantation, is characterized by accelerated loss of bone mineral density and increased risk of fractures and osteonecrosis. The pathogenesis of posttransplantation bone disease is multifactorial and includes the persistent manifestations of pretransplantation CKD-mineral and bone disorder, peritransplantation changes in the fibroblast growth factor 23-parathyroid hormone-vitamin D axis, metabolic perturbations such as persistent hypophosphatemia and hypercalcemia, and the effects of immunosuppressive therapies. Posttransplantation fractures occur more commonly at peripheral than central sites. Although there is significant loss of bone density after transplantation, the evidence linking posttransplantation bone loss and subsequent fracture risk is circumstantial. Presently, there are no prospective clinical trials that define the optimal therapy for posttransplantation bone disease. Combined pharmacologic therapy that targets multiple components of the disordered pathways has been used. Although bisphosphonate or calcitriol therapy can preserve bone mineral density after transplantation, there is no evidence that these agents decrease fracture risk. Moreover, bisphosphonates pose potential risks for adynamic bone disease.American Journal of Kidney Diseases 10/2012; · 5.29 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Kidney transplant recipients usually have low vitamin D levels, especially in the early posttransplantation period, but the association between vitamin D status with renal outcomes is not well described in this population. Here, we studied a prospective cohort of 634 kidney recipients who underwent transplantation at a single institution between January 2005 and June 2010. In this cohort, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations 3 months after transplantation did not predict early death or graft loss but were independently associated with lower measured GFR at 12 months (P=0.001) and higher risk for interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (P=0.01). In contrast, levels of calcium, phosphorus, calcitriol, parathyroid hormone, or fibroblast growth factor-23 were not consistently associated with any of the studied outcomes. In conclusion, low 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration measured 3 months after transplantation is an independent risk factor for interstitial fibrosis progression and is associated with a lower GFR 1 year after transplantation.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor