Article

A microplate technique to simultaneously assay calcium accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum and SERCA release of inorganic phosphate.

Department of Neurology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, B-3059, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. .
Biological Procedures Online (Impact Factor: 1.3). 04/2012; 14(1):4. DOI: 10.1186/1480-9222-14-4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Traditional analyses of calcium homeostasis have separately quantified either calcium accumulation or release mechanisms. To define the system as a whole, however, requires multiple experimental techniques to examine both accumulation and release. Here we describe a technique that couples the simultaneous quantification of radio-labeled calcium accumulation in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) microsomes with the release of inorganic phosphate (Pi) by the hydrolytic activity of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) all in the convenience of a 96-well format.

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    ABSTRACT: We have performed microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize the structural dynamics of cation-bound E1 intermediate states of the calcium pump (sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase, SERCA) in atomic detail, including a lipid bilayer with aqueous solution on both sides. X-ray crystallography with 40 mM Mg2+ in the absence of Ca2+ has shown that SERCA adopts an E1 structure with transmembrane Ca2+-binding sites I and II exposed to the cytosol, stabilized by a single Mg2+ bound to a hybrid binding site I'. This Mg2+-bound E1 intermediate state, designated E1•Mg2+, is proposed to constitute a functional SERCA intermediate that catalyzes the transition from E2 to E1•2Ca2+ by facilitating H+/Ca2+ exchange. To test this hypothesis, we performed two independent MD simulations based on the E1•Mg2+ crystal structure, starting in the presence or absence of initially-bound Mg2+. Both simulations were performed for 1 µs in a solution containing 100 mM K+ and 5 mM Mg2+ in the absence of Ca2+, mimicking muscle cytosol during relaxation. In the presence of initially-bound Mg2+, SERCA site I' maintained Mg2+ binding during the entire MD trajectory, and the cytosolic headpiece maintained a semi-open structure. In the absence of initially-bound Mg2+, two K+ ions rapidly bound to sites I and I' and stayed loosely bound during most of the simulation, while the cytosolic headpiece shifted gradually to a more open structure. Thus MD simulations predict that both E1•Mg2+ and E•2K+ intermediate states of SERCA are populated in solution in the absence of Ca2+, with the more open 2K+-bound state being more abundant at physiological ion concentrations. We propose that the E1•2K+ state acts as a functional intermediate that facilitates the E2 to E1•2Ca2+ transition through two mechanisms: by pre-organizing transport sites for Ca2+ binding, and by partially opening the cytosolic headpiece prior to Ca2+ activation of nucleotide binding.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e95979. · 3.53 Impact Factor

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