Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and the incidence of shunt revision in adult patients with hemorrhage-related hydrocephalus.
ABSTRACT Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery remains the most widely accepted neurosurgical procedure for the management of hydrocephalus. However, shunt failure and complications are common and may require multiple surgical procedures during a patient's lifetime. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and the incidence of shunt revision in adult patients with hemorrhage-related hydrocephalus.
Adult patients who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for hemorrhage-related hydrocephalus from October 1990 to October 2009 were included in this study. Medical charts, operative reports, imaging studies, and clinical follow-up evaluations were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively.
A total of 133 adult patients with the median age of 54.5 years were included. Among patients, 41% were males, and 62% Caucasians. The overall shunt revision rate was 51.9%. The shunt revision rate within the first 6 months after the initial placement of ventriculoperitoneal shunts was 45.1%. The median time to first shunt revision was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.24-9.2) months. No significant association was observed between perioperative variables (gender, ethnicity, hydrocephalus type, or hemorrhage type) and the shunt revision rate in these patients. Major causes of shunt revision include infection (3.6%), overdrainage (7.6%), obstruction (4.8%), proximal shunt complication (7.6%), distal shunt complication (3.6%), old shunt dysfunction (6.8%), valve malfunction (10.0%), externalization (3.6%), shunt complication (12.0%), shunt adjustment/replacement (24.0%) and other (16.4%).
Although ventriculoperitoneal shunting remains to be the treatment of choice for adult patients with post hemorrhage-related hydrocephalus, a thorough understanding of predisposing factors related to the shunt failure is necessary to improve treatment outcomes.