A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cardiometabolic risk parameters in healthy subjects

Antidiabetic Food Centre, Lund University, P,O, Box 121, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden. .
Nutrition & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 3.26). 04/2012; 9(1):29. DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-29
Source: PubMed


Different foods can modulate cardiometabolic risk factors in persons already affected by metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to assess, in healthy overweight individuals, the impact of a diet combining multiple functional concepts on risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMD).
Fourty-four healthy women and men (50-73 y.o, BMI 25-33, fasting glycemia ≤ 6.1 mmol/L) participated in a randomized crossover intervention comparing a multifunctional (active) diet (AD) with a control diet (CD) devoid of the "active" components. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk with a 4 wk washout period. AD included the following functional concepts: low glycemic impact meals, antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish as source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic strain (Lactobacillus plantarum Heal19/DSM15313).
Although the aim was to improve metabolic markers without promoting body weight loss, minor weight reductions were observed with both diets (0.9-1.8 ± 0.2%; P < 0.05). CD did not modify the metabolic variables measured. AD promoted significant changes in total serum cholesterol (-26 ± 1% vs baseline; P < 0.0001), LDL-cholesterol (-34 ± 1%; P < 0.0001), triglycerides (-19 ± 3%; P = 0.0056), LDL/HDL (-27 ± 2%; P < 0.0001), apoB/apoA1 (-10 ± 2%; P < 0.0001), HbA1c (-2 ± 0.4%; P = 0.0013), hs-CRP (-29 ± 9%; P = 0.0497) and systolic blood pressure (-8 ± 1%¸ P = 0.0123). The differences remained significant after adjustment for weight change. After AD, the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate was 30 ± 4% (P < 0.0001) lower and the Reynolds cardiovascular risk score, which considers CRP values, decreased by 35 ± 3% (P < 0.0001).
The improved biomarker levels recorded in healthy individuals following the multifunctional regime suggest preventive potential of this dietary approach against CMD.

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Available from: Juscelino Tovar, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "A large proportion of Mexican adults with obesity-related metabolic comorbidities remains undiagnosed [11], something noteworthy given the close association of obesity as a prominent risk factor to the development of type II diabetes and metabolic disorders in general. Since dietary means based on the sound combination of functional foods are being increasingly acknowledged as useful for both treatment [12] and prevention [13] of cardiometabolic diseases, much research efforts are in progress aiming to identify and develop new products with beneficial effects on these pathologies. One important focus is the control of type 2 diabetes by helping blood glucose homeostasis, which may be possible by controlling the quality and quantity in food consumed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Different starchy foods are frequently consumed in the Mexican diet. Some of them were developed by Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations. Until today, common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), tortillas made with maize (Zea mays) and related maize-based products are some of the main staple foods. Additionally, wheat-based foods are also important starch sources, incorporated in different dishes. This review deals with the in vitro digestibility of the starch fraction in foods commonly consumed in Mexico, paying attention to the addition of unconventional, natural raw materials, such as flour and starch from unripe banana, mango dietary fibre and common legumes. These ingredients enhance potential health-beneficial properties of the diet in cases of non-communicable diseases, particularly those related to obesity and glycaemic homeostasis. Since Mexico is among the countries with greatest indices of overweight and obesity, this paper reviews the in vitro starch availability features, including predicted GI, of various Mexican foods. Attention is also paid to the effect of cold storage conditions on starch digestibility. As an example, starch digestibility in blue maize tortillas (58%) is lower than in white tortillas (70–89%) and a maize tortilla/boiled bean composite dish ranks as a food with low predicted GI (pGI = 51).
    Starch - Starke 01/2014; 66(1-2). DOI:10.1002/star.201200206 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    • "This type of diet was tested in a recent study where middle-aged women and men with body mass index 25 to 33 kg/m 2 were given a diet consisting of known anti-inflammatory food items, cholesterollowering products, and probiotics and prebiotic fibers [47]. The randomized crossover intervention diet was given for 4 wk with a 4-wk washout period and resulted in significantly lower CRP, cholesterol, blood pressure, and HbA 1c during the active diet period [47]. This approach illustrates the potential for using a multifunctional dietary intervention to reduce the health hazards of the MetS in humans. "
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    ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, is a growing epidemic worldwide, requiring new prevention strategies and therapeutics. The concept of prebiotics refers to selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host. Sequencing the gut microbiome and performing metagenomics has provided new knowledge of the significance of the composition and activity of the gut microbiota in metabolic disease. As knowledge of how a healthy gut microbiota is composed and which bacterial metabolites are beneficial increases, tailor-made dietary interventions using prebiotic fibers could be developed for individuals with MetS. In this review, we describe how dietary fibers alter short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profiles and the intrinsic and extrinsic effects of prebiotics on host metabolism. We focus on several key aspects in prebiotic research in relation to MetS and provide mechanistic data that support the use of prebiotic fibers in order to alter the gut microbiota composition and SCFA profiles. Further studies in the field should provide reliable mechanistic and clinical evidence for how prebiotics can be used to alleviate MetS and its complications. Additionally, it will be important to clarify the effect of individual differences in the gut microbiome on responsiveness to prebiotic interventions.
    Nutrition 10/2013; 30(5). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2013.08.013 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    • "Thus, the study design does not allow any conclusions regarding effects of individual food components. However, the major inclusion criteria for the variety of foods and meals in the active diet were to achieve anti-inflammatory properties through several different food mechanisms [29]. One of the underlying purposes with combining several food concepts was to increase the possibility to include realistic amounts of each active food components, hence increasing compliance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Disorders such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Also several of the individual key features that define the MetS, e.g. hypertension, impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, obesity, and inflammation, are related to an increased risk of cognitive decline. Consequently, a diet that prevents metabolic disorders might be expected to prevent cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to, in overweight but otherwise healthy subjects, investigate effects on cognitive functions of a dietary regime combining multiple functional concepts potentially beneficial to risk markers associated with MetS. The purpose was in addition to evaluate cognitive performance in relation to results on cardiometabolic risk variables (BMI, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, lipoprotein A-1 and B, hs-CRP, HbA1c, interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, and PAI-1). Fourty-four healthy women and men (50--73 years, BMI 25--33, fasting glycemia <= 6.1 mmol/L) participated in a randomized, controlled crossover intervention, comparing a multifunctional diet (active diet (AD)) including foods with a potential anti-inflammatory action, with a control diet (CD) devoid of the "active" components. Both diets were composed in close agreement with the Nordic dietary recommendations. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk, separated by a 4 wk washout period. Cognitive tests were performed at fasting and in the postprandial period after a standardized breakfast, after each diet period. In comparison with the CD, the AD improved performance in the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning test (recognition test, p < 0.05, ANOVA, n = 42) and significantly improved performance in test of selective attention, which also included aspects of working memory (p < 0.05, n = 40). Performance in cognitive tests was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of cardiometabolic risk markers (fasting cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure) and cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham and Reynols), and positivly associated with apolipoprotein A1 (Pearson correlations, p < 0.05). The results indicate that diet characteristics may modulate cognitive performance. A relationship seems to exist between cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance in apparently healthy subjects. The results provide additional motives for diet based prevention of metabolic disturbances related to the MetS.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 07/2013; 10(1):49. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-10-49 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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