The effect of music-based listening interventions on the volume, fat content, and caloric content of breast milk-produced by mothers of premature and critically ill infants.

Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, 31061, USA.
Advances in Neonatal Care 04/2012; 12(2):112-9. DOI: 10.1097/ANC.0b013e31824d9842
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Maternal breast milk is considered the nutritional "gold standard" for all infants, especially premature infants. However, preterm mothers are at risk of not producing adequate milk. Multiple factors affect the production of milk, including stress, fatigue, and the separation of the breastfeeding dyad-for example, when mother or infant is hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening and visual interventions on the quantity and quality of breast milk produced by mothers using a double electric breast pump.
Mothers of 162 preterm infants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups.
The control group received standard nursing care, whereas mothers in the 3 experimental groups additionally listened to a recording of 1 of 3 music-based listening interventions while using the pump.
Mothers in the experimental groups produced significantly more milk (P < .0012). Mothers in these groups also produced milk with significantly higher fat content during the first 6 days of the study.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Late-preterm infants, defined by birth at 34(0/7) through 36(6/7) weeks' gestation, are less physiologically and metabolically mature than term infants. Thus, they are at higher risk of morbidity and mortality than term infants. The purpose of this report is to define "late preterm," recommend a change in terminology from "near term" to "late preterm," present the characteristics of late-preterm infants that predispose them to a higher risk of morbidity and mortality than term infants, and propose guidelines for the evaluation and management of these infants after birth.
    PEDIATRICS 01/2008; 120(6):1390-401. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This meta-analysis on music research with premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) showed an overall large, significant, consistent effect size of almost a standard deviation (d =.83) (Cohen, 1998). Effects were not mediated by infants' gestational age at the time of study, birthweight, or type of music delivery nor by physiologic, behavioral, or developmental measures of benefit. The homogeneity of findings suggests that music has statistically significant and clinically important benefits for premature infants in the NICU. The unique acoustic properties that differentiate music from all other sounds are discussed and clinical implications for research-based music therapy procedures cited.
    Journal of Pediatric Nursing 05/2002; 17(2):107-13. · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many women whose premature infants are hospitalized in a newborn intensive care unit choose to express breast milk for their babies. Yet anxiety, fatigue, and emotional stress are powerful inhibitors of lactation. To facilitate the breast-feeding experience, intervention mothers were given a 20-minute audio cassette tape based on relaxation and visual imagery techniques. At a single follow-up expression of milk at the hospital approximately 1 week after enrollment, they expressed 63% more breast milk than a randomized group of control mothers. The fat content of the breast milk in the two groups was not significantly different. Among a small group of mothers whose infants were receiving mechanical ventilation, the increase in milk volume compared with that of control mothers was 121%. Longer-term effects of the relaxation/imagery approach (such as extending the duration of breast-feeding or reducing parental stress after hospital discharge) and the physiologic basis for the increased volume of expressed milk (improved milk production v more efficient milk ejection) are appropriate topics for future research.
    Pediatrics 02/1989; 83(1):57-60. · 5.12 Impact Factor