Safety and immunogenicity of 2010-2011 H1N12009-containing trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children 12-59 months of age previously given AS03-adjuvanted H1N12009 pandemic vaccine: A PHAC/CIHR Influenza Research Network (PCIRN) study
Concern arose in 2010 that reactogenicity, particularly febrile seizures, to influenza A/H1N1-containing 2010-2011 trivalent seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) could occur in young children who had been previously immunized and/or infected with the pandemic strain. We conducted a pre-season study of 2010-2011 TIV safety and immunogenicity in children 12-59 months of age to inform public health decision making.
Children immunized with 1 or 2 doses of the pandemic vaccine, with or without the 2009-10 TIV, received 1 or 2 doses of 2010-11 TIV in an observational, multicentre Canadian study. Standard safety monitoring was enhanced by a telephone call at ~24 h post-TIV when adverse events were expected to peak. Summary safety reports were rapidly reported to public health before the launch of public programs. TIV immunogenicity was assessed day 0, and 21 days after final vaccination. Clinical Trials Registration NCT01180621.
Among 207 children, a general adverse event was reported by 60.9% of children post-dose one and by 58.3% post-dose two. Only severe fever (>38.5°C) was more common in two-dose compared to one dose recipients (16.7%, n=4 v. 1.0%, n=2). At baseline 99.0% of participants had A/H1N1 hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) titers ≥10, and 85.5% had a protective titer of ≥40 (95% CI 80.0, 90.0). Baseline geometric mean titers (GMT) were higher in recipients of a 2-dose schedule of pandemic vaccine compared to one-dose recipients: 153.1 (95% CI 126.2, 185.7) v. 78.8 ((58.1, 106.8, p<0.001). At 21 days, all regulatory criteria for influenza vaccine immunogenicity were exceeded for A/H1N1 and H3N2, but responses to the B antigen were poor. No correlations between reactogenicity and either baseline high influenza titers or serologic response to revaccination were evident.
Infants and toddlers who received AS03-adjuvanted A/H1N1 2009 vaccine up to 11 months earlier retained high titers in the subsequent season but re-exposure to A/H1N1 2009 antigen in TIV resulted in no unusual adverse effects and 100% were sero-protected for A/H1N1 after receipt of the 2010-11 TIV.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The annually reformulated trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) includes both influenza A/subtypes (H3N2 and H1N1) but only one of two influenza B/lineages (Yamagata or Victoria). In a recent series of clinical trials to evaluate prime-boost response across influenza B/lineages, influenza-naïve infants and toddlers originally primed with two doses of 2008-09 B/Yamagata-containing TIV were assessed after two doses of B/Victoria-containing TIV administered in the subsequent 2009-10 and 2010-11 seasons. In these children, the Victoria-containing vaccines strongly recalled antibody to the initiating B/Yamagata antigen but induced only low B/Victoria antibody responses. To further evaluate this unexpected pattern of cross-lineage vaccine responses, we conducted additional immunogenicity assessment in mice. In the current study, mice were primed with two doses of 2008-09 Yamagata-containing TIV and subsequently boosted with two doses of 2010-11 Victoria-containing TIV (Group-Yam/Vic). With the same vaccines, we also assessed the reverse order of two-dose Victoria followed by two-dose Yamagata immunization (Group-Vic/Yam). The Group-Yam/Vic mice showed strong homologous responses to Yamagata antigen. However, as previously reported in children, subsequent doses of Victoria antigen substantially boosted Yamagata but induced only low antibody response to the immunizing Victoria component. The reverse order of Group-Vic/Yam mice also showed low homologous responses to Victoria but subsequent heterologous immunization with even a single dose of Yamagata antigen induced substantial boost response to both lineages. For influenza A/H3N2, homologous responses were comparably robust for the differing TIV variants and even a single follow-up dose of the heterologous strain, regardless of vaccine sequence, substantially boosted antibody to both strains. For H1N1, two doses of 2008-09 seasonal antigen significantly blunted response to two doses of the 2010-11 pandemic H1N1 antigen. Immunologic interactions between influenza viruses considered antigenically distant and in particular the cross-lineage influenza B and dominant Yamagata boost responses we have observed in both human and animal studies warrant further evaluation.
PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e38929. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038929 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
HIV-infected children are at heightened risk for severe influenza illness; however, there is no study on the efficacy or effectiveness of influenza vaccine in these children. We evaluated the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of nonadjuvanted, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) against confirmed seasonal influenza virus illness in HIV-infected children.
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken in Johannesburg in 2009. Four hundred and ten children were randomized to two doses of TIV or placebo 1 month apart. Nasopharyngeal aspirates obtained at respiratory illness visits were tested by influenza-specific reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR). Vaccine immunogenicity was evaluated by hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) assay. Influenza isolates were sequenced and evaluated in maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis.
Overall, the median age of participants was 23.8 months and their median CD4% was 33.5. Ninety-two percent of enrolees were on antiretroviral therapy. Among children receiving both doses of vaccine/placebo, confirmed seasonal influenza illness occurred in 13 (all H3N2) of 205 TIV recipients and 17 (15 H3N2 and two influenza B) of 200 placebo recipients with vaccine efficacy of 17.7% (95% confidence interval <0-62.4%). The proportion of TIV recipients who seroconverted after second dose against vaccine strains of H1N1, H3N2, and influenza B were 47.5, 50.0, and 40.0%, compared to 4.7, 11.6, and 0%, respectively among placebo recipients. There were no TIV-related serious adverse events. Sequence analysis of wild-type H3N2 strains indicated drift from the H3N2 vaccine strain.
Poor immunogenicity of TIV, coupled with drift of circulating H3N2 wild-type compared to vaccine strain, may explain the lack of efficacy of TIV in young HIV-infected children. Alternate TIV vaccine schedules or formulations warrant evaluation for efficacy in HIV-infected children.
AIDS (London, England) 10/2012; 27(3). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0b013e32835ab5b2 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many Canadians received a novel AS03-adjuvanted vaccine during the 2009 influenza A/H1N1 pandemic. Longer term implications of adjuvant use were unclear: would anti-H1N1 immune responses persist at high levels and, if so, could that result in increased or unusual adverse effects upon re-exposure to H1N1pdm09 antigen in the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) for 2010-11? To answer these questions, adults given AS03-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09 vaccine (Arepanrix®, GSK Canada) 9-10 mo earlier were enrolled in an evaluator-blinded, crossover trial to receive 2010-2011 non-adjuvanted TIV (Fluviral®, GSK Canada) and placebo 10 d apart, in random order. Adverse effects were monitored for 7 d after each injection. Vaccine-attributable adverse event (VAAE) rates were calculated by subtracting rates after placebo from those after vaccine. Blood was obtained pre-vaccination and 21-30 d afterward to measure hemagglutination inhibiting antibody titers. In total, 326 participants were enrolled and 321 completed the study. VAAE rates were low except for myalgia (18.6%) and injection site pain (63.2%). At baseline, H1N1pdm09 titers ≥ 40 were present in 176/325 subjects (54.2%, 95% confidence interval 48.6, 59.7), with a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 37.4 (95% CI 32.8, 42.6). Post-immunization, 96.0% (95% CI 92.3, 97.8) had H1N1pdm09 titers ≥ 40, with GMT of 167.4 (95% CI 148.7, 188.5). Responses to both influenza A strains in TIV were similar, implying no lasting effect of adjuvant exposure. In summary, titers ≥ 40 persisted in only half the participants 9-10 mo after adjuvanted pandemic vaccine but were restored in nearly all after TIV vaccination, with minimal increase in adverse effects.
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