In vitro and in vivo osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from skin, bone marrow and dental follicle tissues.
ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) isolated from skin (hSMSC), bone marrow (hBMSC) and dental follicle (hDFMSC) tissues on their in vitro and in vivo osteogenic potential using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and fibrin glue scaffold. Cells originated from three distinct tissues showed positive expressions of CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 and vimentin, and differentiation ability into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. hMSCs from all tissues co-cultured with a mixed DBM and fibrin glue scaffold in non-osteogenic induction media were positively stained by von Kossa and expressed osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin (OC), osteonectin (ON), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix. For in vivo osteogenic evaluation, PKH26 labeled hMSCs were implanted into the subcutaneous spaces of athymic mice with a mixed scaffold. At 4 weeks of implantation, PKH26 labeled cells were detected in all hMSC-implanted groups. Bone formation with OC expression and radio-opacity intensity were observed around DBM scaffold in all hMSC-implanted groups. Interestingly, hDFMSCs-implanted group showed the highest OC expression and calcium content. These findings demonstrated that hDFMSCs could be a potential alternative autologous cell source for bone tissue engineering.
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ABSTRACT: Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have potential applications in tissue regeneration because of their convenient cell harvesting procedures and multipotent capacity. However, the tissue regenerative potential of DPSCs is known to be negatively regulated by aging in long-term culture and under oxidative stress. With an aim of reducing cellular senescence and oxidative stress in DPSCs, an intracellular delivery system for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was developed. We conjugated SOD1 with a cell-penetrating peptide known as low-molecular weight protamine (LMWP), and investigated the effect of LMWP-SOD1 conjugates on hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular senescence and osteoblastic differentiation. LMWP-SOD1 significantly attenuated enlarged and flattened cell morphology and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Under the same conditions, LMWP-SOD1 abolished activation of the cell cycle regulator proteins, p53 and p21(Cip1), induced by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, LMWP-SOD1 reversed the inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation and downregulation of osteogenic gene markers induced by hydrogen peroxide. However, LMWP-SOD1 could not reverse the decrease in odontogenesis caused by hydrogen peroxide. Overall, cell-penetrating LMWP-SOD1 conjugates are effective for attenuation of cellular senescence and reversal of osteoblastic differentiation of DPSCs caused by oxidative stress inhibition. This result suggests potential application in the field of antiaging and tissue engineering to overcome the limitations of senescent stem cells.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:5091-106. · 3.46 Impact Factor