In vitro and in vivo osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from skin, bone marrow and dental follicle tissues.
ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) isolated from skin (hSMSC), bone marrow (hBMSC) and dental follicle (hDFMSC) tissues on their in vitro and in vivo osteogenic potential using demineralized bone matrix (DBM) and fibrin glue scaffold. Cells originated from three distinct tissues showed positive expressions of CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105 and vimentin, and differentiation ability into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. hMSCs from all tissues co-cultured with a mixed DBM and fibrin glue scaffold in non-osteogenic induction media were positively stained by von Kossa and expressed osteoblast-related genes, such as osteocalcin (OC), osteonectin (ON), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and osterix. For in vivo osteogenic evaluation, PKH26 labeled hMSCs were implanted into the subcutaneous spaces of athymic mice with a mixed scaffold. At 4 weeks of implantation, PKH26 labeled cells were detected in all hMSC-implanted groups. Bone formation with OC expression and radio-opacity intensity were observed around DBM scaffold in all hMSC-implanted groups. Interestingly, hDFMSCs-implanted group showed the highest OC expression and calcium content. These findings demonstrated that hDFMSCs could be a potential alternative autologous cell source for bone tissue engineering.
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ABSTRACT: Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties.Journal of prosthodontic research. 07/2012; 56(3):151-65.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the most suitable polymer material for supporting stem cell growth as a myocardial patch. After cell isolation and expansion of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC), the cells were induced to differentiate into cardiomyocytes with 5-azacytidine to determine their differentiation potential. BMSCs were also seeded onto three types of polymer material film, including polyurethane (PU), 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate [P(3HB-co-4HB)], and polypropylene carbonate (PPC). The results revealed that cell numbers were more abundant on both the PU and P(3HB-co-4HB) material surfaces. Conversely, the surface of PPC was smooth with only cell lysate debris observed. The average cell counts were as follows: 143.78 ± 38.38 (PU group), 159.50 ± 33.07 [P(3HB-co-4HB) group], and 1.40 ± 0.70 (PPC group). There was no statistically significant difference in cell numbers between the PU and P(3HB-co-4HB) groups. A statistically significant difference was identified between the PPC group and both the PU (P1) and P(3HB-co-4HB) groups (P2). Polymer biomaterial patches composed of PU and P(3HB-co-4HB) permit good stem cell growth. P(3HB-co-4HB) has the potential for development as a clinical alternative to current treatment methods for the regeneration of cardiomyocytes in patients with myocardial infarction.Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 04/2013; · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have potential applications in tissue regeneration because of their convenient cell harvesting procedures and multipotent capacity. However, the tissue regenerative potential of DPSCs is known to be negatively regulated by aging in long-term culture and under oxidative stress. With an aim of reducing cellular senescence and oxidative stress in DPSCs, an intracellular delivery system for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was developed. We conjugated SOD1 with a cell-penetrating peptide known as low-molecular weight protamine (LMWP), and investigated the effect of LMWP-SOD1 conjugates on hydrogen peroxide-induced cellular senescence and osteoblastic differentiation. LMWP-SOD1 significantly attenuated enlarged and flattened cell morphology and increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Under the same conditions, LMWP-SOD1 abolished activation of the cell cycle regulator proteins, p53 and p21(Cip1), induced by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, LMWP-SOD1 reversed the inhibition of osteoblastic differentiation and downregulation of osteogenic gene markers induced by hydrogen peroxide. However, LMWP-SOD1 could not reverse the decrease in odontogenesis caused by hydrogen peroxide. Overall, cell-penetrating LMWP-SOD1 conjugates are effective for attenuation of cellular senescence and reversal of osteoblastic differentiation of DPSCs caused by oxidative stress inhibition. This result suggests potential application in the field of antiaging and tissue engineering to overcome the limitations of senescent stem cells.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:5091-106. · 3.46 Impact Factor