Ileal pouch adenomas and carcinomas after restorative proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis.
ABSTRACT Restorative proctocolectomy and IPAA has become the treatment of choice in familial adenomatous polyposis. However, several cases of adenomas and carcinomas arising in the ileal pouch were reported.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and natural history of ileal pouch adenomas and the development of carcinomas in patients with restorative proctocolectomy for familial adenomatous polyposis.
We prospectively studied patients who underwent IPAA during the past 20 years at the surgical unit of the University of Florence in Italy.
We investigated the extent of the risk and the factors that are involved in the development of neoplastic changes of the pouch. Furthermore, because it is not entirely clear when and how polyps should be treated, we have revised our modality of treatment for this unusual pathology.
Sixty-nine patients with familial adenomatous polyposis underwent restorative proctocolectomy. In 66 patients, handsewn ileoanal anastomosis with anal canal mucosectomy was performed. After surgery, all patients underwent endoscopic surveillance.
After 10 years of follow-up, 1 ileal pouch adenoma was found in 64.9% of restorative proctocolectomy patients, and ileal pouch carcinomas occurred in 2 patients (29 and 59 years old), 3 and 11 years after restorative proctocolectomy. The number of colonic adenomatous polyps influenced the occurrence of pouch adenomas. No patients with <200 colonic adenomas experienced pouch adenomas, but 46% of patients with >1000 colonic polyps had pouch adenomas, and 25% of patients with 200 to 1000 colonic polyps had pouch adenomas at follow-up. No relationship was found between ileal pouch adenomas and pouch shape (J, S, or straight ileoanal anastomosis with multiple myotomies) or the APC mutation. Polyps larger than 5 mm were removed by endoscopy or surgery.
Ileal pouch adenomas were common after restorative proctocolectomy. Patients >50 years of age and patients with >1000 colonic adenomas at the time of colectomy were more prone to ileal pouch adenomas. The development of malignancy in the terminal ileum can present a fast course and does not seem to follow the classic adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
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ABSTRACT: Restorative proctocolectomy is the most common surgical option for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). However, adenomas may develop in the ileal pouch mucosa over time, and even carcinoma in the pouch has been reported. We therefore reviewed the prevalence, nature, and treatment of adenomas and carcinoma that develop after proctocolectomy in the ileal pouch mucosa in patients with FAP. In 25 reports that were reviewed, the incidence of adenomas in the ileal pouch varied from 6.7% to 73.9%. Several potential factors that favor the development of pouch polyposis have been investigated, but many remain controversial. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the age of the pouch is important. The risk appears to be 7% to 16% after 5 years, 35% to 42% after 10 years, and 75% after 15 years. On the other hand, only 21 cases of ileal pouch carcinoma have been recorded in the literature to date. The diagnosis of pouch carcinoma was made between 3 to 20 years (median, 10 years) after pouch construction. Although the risk of malignant transformation in ileal pouches is probably low, it is not negligible, and the long-term risk cannot presently be well quantified. Regular endoscopic surveillance, especially using chromoendoscopy, is recommended.World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2013; 19(40):6774-6783. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the treatment of choice in familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) to prevent the risk of colorectal cancer. However, it currently is recognized that adenomas may develop in the ileal pouch. The risk of adenoma occurring in the afferent ileal loop above the pouch is less clearly identified. This study aimed to evaluate the difference in prevalence of adenomas between the ileal pouch and the afferent ileum after IPAA in FAP. METHODS: The study analyzed 442 endoscopies performed between 2003 and 2008 for 139 FAP patients. The patients had undergone an IPAA in 118 cases, an ileorectal anastomosis in 13 cases, or an ileostomy in 8 cases. RESULTS: Among the 118 IPAA patients, 57 (48.3 %) had pouch adenomas a median of 15 years after surgery. The risk factors for pouch adenomas were delay since pouch construction [odds ratio (OR), 1.11; p = 0.016] and presence of advanced duodenal adenomas (OR, 4.35; p = 0.011). Seven patients had pouch adenomas with high-grade dysplasia. Only nine patients had afferent ileal loop adenomas (6.5 %). The only significant risk factor for ileal adenomas was the presence of pouch adenomas (OR, 2.16; p = 0.007). CONCLUSION: After restorative proctocolectomy in FAP, adenoma recurrence is frequent in the pouch, with a higher risk for patients with advanced duodenal adenomas and an increasing risk over time, whereas adenomas are rarely found in the afferent ileal loop. This finding may help to propose redo ileal pouch anal anastomosis if required.Surgical Endoscopy 05/2013; · 3.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is one in 7,000 to 12,000 live births. Virtually, all surgically untreated patients with FAP inevitably develop colorectal-cancer in their lifetime because they carry the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Thus prophylactic proctocolectomy is indicated. Surgical treatment of FAP is still controversial. There are however, four surgical options: ileorectal anastomosis, restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, proctocolectomy with ileostomy, and proctocolectomy with continent-ileostomy. Conventional proctocolectomy options largely lie between colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. Detractors of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis prefer ileorectal anastomosis because of better functional results and quality of life. The functional outcome of total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis is undoubtedly far superior to that of the ileoanal pouch; however, the risk for rectal cancer is increased by 30%. Even after mucosectomy, inadvertent small mucosal residual islands remain. These residual islands carry the potential for the development of subsequent malignancy. We reviewed the literature (1975-2012) on the incidence, nature, and possible etiology of subsequent ileal-pouch and anal transit zone adenocarcinoma after prophylactic surgery procedure for FAP. To date there are 24 studies reporting 92 pouch-related cancers; 15 case reports, 4 prospective and 5 retrospective studies. Twenty three of 92 cancers (25%) developed in the pouch mucosa and 69 (75%) in anal transit zone (ATZ). Current recommendation for pouch surveillance and treatment are presented. Data suggest lifetime surveillance of these patients.Journal of Cancer Therapy 01/2013; 4(1):260-270.