Molecular imaging for personalized cancer care

Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY 10065, USA.
Molecular oncology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2012; 6(2):182-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.molonc.2012.02.005
Source: PubMed


Molecular imaging is rapidly gaining recognition as a tool with the capacity to improve every facet of cancer care. Molecular imaging in oncology can be defined as in vivo characterization and measurement of the key biomolecules and molecularly based events that are fundamental to the malignant state. This article outlines the basic principles of molecular imaging as applied in oncology with both established and emerging techniques. It provides examples of the advantages that current molecular imaging techniques offer for improving clinical cancer care as well as drug development. It also discusses the importance of molecular imaging for the emerging field of theranostics and offers a vision of how molecular imaging may one day be integrated with other diagnostic techniques to dramatically increase the efficiency and effectiveness of cancer care.

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    • "Additionally, advanced imaging technologies, through earlier selection of candidates for new drugs, can reduce the large attrition rate in the pharmaceutical development process. Molecular imaging may one day be integrated with other diagnostic techniques to dramatically increase the efficiency and effectiveness of cancer care (Kircher et al., 2012). Modernization of the drug development process also calls for new models of research collaboration that can improve the probability of effective target selection and target validation. "
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    DESCRIPTION: The high price of cancer drugs has become a world-wide phenomenon. In recent decades, studies have produced ample evidence of rising research and clinical testing costs underlying pharmaceutical innovations. There is a general concurrence that the current model of drug devel¬opment needs a thorough streamlining. It is also alleged that the prices of new anticancer agents seem to be decided by pharmaceutical companies, according to what the market will bear, in a producer-dominated market. Studies have noted with concern that there is a little correlation between the actual efficacy of a new drug (in terms of prolonging a patient’s life in years, or quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and its price. The present study is an attempt to address some major challenges which are: (i) how to increase the overall pace of innovation (R&D productivity); (ii) how to control the costs and prices of new innovative drugs; (iii) how to direct more innovation to areas where social returns are highest; and (iv) how to improve patients’ timely access to innovative medicines while balancing ‘safety’ concerns.
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    • "Noninvasive imaging modalities, such as single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical fluorescence, or targeted ultrasound, are important tools in clinical diagnosis. They are widely used for monitoring of disease status and the real-time evaluation of treatment response.1–3 "
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    ABSTRACT: The significant progress in nanotechnology provides a wide spectrum of nanosized material for various applications, including tumor targeting and molecular imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate multifunctional liposomal nanoparticles for targeting approaches and detection of tumors using different imaging modalities. The concept of dual-targeting was tested in vitro and in vivo using liposomes derivatized with an arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide binding to αvβ3 integrin receptors and a substance P peptide binding to neurokinin-1 receptors. For liposome preparation, lipids, polyethylene glycol building blocks, DTPA-derivatized lipids for radiolabeling, lipid-based RGD and substance P building blocks and imaging labels were combined in defined molar ratios. Liposomes were characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy and zeta potential measurements, and in vitro binding properties were tested using fluorescence microscopy. Standardized protocols for radiolabeling were developed to perform biodistribution and micro-single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) studies in nude mice bearing glioblastoma and/or melanoma tumor xenografts. Additionally, an initial magnetic resonance imaging study was performed. Liposomes were radiolabeled with high radiochemical yields. Fluorescence microscopy showed specific cellular interactions with RGD-liposomes and substance P-liposomes. Biodistribution and micro-SPECT/CT imaging of (111)In-labeled liposomal nanoparticles revealed low tumor uptake, but in a preliminary magnetic resonance imaging study with a single-targeted RGD-liposome, uptake in the tumor xenografts could be visualized. The present study shows the potential of liposomes as multifunctional targeted vehicles for imaging of tumors combining radioactive, fluorescent, and magnetic resonance signaling. Specific in vitro tumor targeting by fluorescence microscopy and radioactivity was achieved. However, biodistribution studies in an animal tumor model revealed only moderate tumor uptake and no additive effect using a dual-targeting approach.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 12/2013; 8:4659-71. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S51927 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    • "This strategy has been successful for certain types of cancers [10] but unfortunately not for PDAC. The reasons are multifactorial but include extensive stromal components [11] [12] [13] and the lack of uniformly expressed biomarkers [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to assess lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (LNMRI) in identifying malignant nodal involvement in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 13 patients with known or high index of suspicion of pancreatic cancer and who were scheduled for surgical resection. Protocols included T2*-weighted imaging before and after administration of Ferumoxytol (Feraheme) for the evaluation of lymph node involvement. Eleven of the 13 patients underwent a Whipple procedure and lymph node dissection. Nodes that lacked contrast uptake were deemed malignant, and those that demonstrated homogeneous uptake were deemed benign. A total of 264 lymph nodes were resection, of which 17 were malignant. The sensitivity and specificity of LNMRI was 76.5% and 98.4% at a nodal level and 83.3% and 80% at a patient level. LNMRI demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
    Translational oncology 12/2013; 6(6):670-5. DOI:10.1593/tlo.13400 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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