Galpha/LGN-mediated asymmetric spindle positioning does not lead to unequal cleavage of the mother cell in 3-D cultured MDCK cells.
ABSTRACT The position of the mitotic spindle plays a key role in spatial control of cell division. It is generally believed that when a spindle is positioned asymmetrically in a dividing cell, the resulting daughter cells are usually unequal in size due to eccentric cleavage of the mother cell. Molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of unequal sized daughter cells have been extensively studied in Drosophila neuroblast and Caenorhabditis elegans zygote where the Gα subunit of the heterotrimeric G proteins and its binding partner - Pins in Drosophila and GPR-1/2 in C. elegans - are shown to be critical in governing spindle positioning and asymmetric cleavage of the mother cell. In mammalian system, although Gα and LGN (mammalian Pins homolog) are also required for spindle orientation, whether they can mediate asymmetric spindle positioning or asymmetric cleavage of the mother cell is not known. Here, by artificially targeting Gαi to the apical cortex in 3-D cultured MDCK cells, we established a system where asymmetric spindle positioning can be consistently induced. Interestingly, this asymmetrically positioned spindle does not lead to asymmetric cleavage; instead it results in equal sized daughter cells. Live cell time-lapse analysis revealed that anaphase spindle elongation compensated the original asymmetric spindle positioning. Our findings demonstrate that asymmetric spindle positioning does not necessarily lead to unequal sized daughter cells in mammalian system. We discuss potential mechanisms in generating unequal sized daughter cells.
Article: Differential functions of G protein and Baz-aPKC signaling pathways in Drosophila neuroblast asymmetric division.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drosophila melanogaster neuroblasts (NBs) undergo asymmetric divisions during which cell-fate determinants localize asymmetrically, mitotic spindles orient along the apical-basal axis, and unequal-sized daughter cells appear. We identified here the first Drosophila mutant in the Ggamma1 subunit of heterotrimeric G protein, which produces Ggamma1 lacking its membrane anchor site and exhibits phenotypes identical to those of Gbeta13F, including abnormal spindle asymmetry and spindle orientation in NB divisions. This mutant fails to bind Gbeta13F to the membrane, indicating an essential role of cortical Ggamma1-Gbeta13F signaling in asymmetric divisions. In Ggamma1 and Gbeta13F mutant NBs, Pins-Galphai, which normally localize in the apical cortex, no longer distribute asymmetrically. However, the other apical components, Bazooka-atypical PKC-Par6-Inscuteable, still remain polarized and responsible for asymmetric Miranda localization, suggesting their dominant role in localizing cell-fate determinants. Further analysis of Gbetagamma and other mutants indicates a predominant role of Partner of Inscuteable-Galphai in spindle orientation. We thus suggest that the two apical signaling pathways have overlapping but different roles in asymmetric NB division.The Journal of Cell Biology 04/2004; 164(5):729-38. · 10.26 Impact Factor
Article: Heterotrimeric G protein signaling functions with dynein to promote spindle positioning in C. elegans.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Proper orientation and positioning of the mitotic spindle is essential for the correct segregation of fate determinants during asymmetric cell division. Although heterotrimeric G proteins and their regulators are essential for spindle positioning in many cell types, their mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we show that dyrb-1, which encodes a dynein light chain, provides a functional link between heterotrimeric G protein signaling and dynein activity during spindle positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans. Embryos depleted of dyrb-1 display phenotypes similar to a weak loss of function of dynein activity, indicating that DYRB-1 is a positive regulator of dynein. We find that the depletion of dyrb-1 enhances the spindle positioning defect of weak loss of function alleles of two regulators of G protein signaling, LIN-5 and GPR-1/2, and that DYRB-1 physically associates with these two proteins. These results indicate that dynein activity functions with regulators of G protein signaling to regulate common downstream effectors during spindle positioning in the early C. elegans embryo.The Journal of Cell Biology 11/2007; 179(1):15-22. · 10.26 Impact Factor