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    • "Vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is highly prevalent among children with bronchial asthma. Lewis et al.48) reported that the serum concentration of 25(OH)D was positively associated with asthma control in children. Another recent study showed that lower vitamin D levels in 86 children with severe, therapy-resistant asthma in the United Kingdom were associated with worsened asthma control and lung function49). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency) is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter), insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (non-white), older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 µg) of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure) and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents.
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics 10/2013; 56(10):417-423. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.10.417
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between serum vitamin D levels and atopy is an up to date topic. Most studies, particularly transversal and observational studies, demonstrate that there is a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and symptoms of atopy (rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies). Vitamin D deficiency is more frequently observed in atopic children than in controls in the general population. Vitamin D could play a major role in the genesis of allergies because of its multiple extra- osseous effects, particularly on natural and acquired immunity. Variations in exposure to UV- B radiation leading to differences in vitamin D synthesis could explain the North- South gradient described in epidemiological studies for most symptoms of atopy. The same theory could explain the significant excess in food allergies observed in children born during the cold season in both hemispheres. In some studies, prescription of vitamin D to patients with deficiencies improved their symptoms, i.e. better control of asthma, improvement in atopic dermatitis scores. The demonstration that the vitamin D status of pregnant women has an effect on the later development of allergic or infectious diseases (bronchiolitis, tuberculosis) in their children further accentuated the importance of the relationship between vitamin D, atopy and immunity. Large, prospective studies are currently underway to define the precise nature of this relationship and its practical clinical impact.
    Revue Française d'Allergologie 10/2012; 52:S10–S18. DOI:10.1016/S1877-0320(12)70038-6 · 0.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is a key nutrient for both healthy children and those with chronic illnesses. Understanding its roles in health and disease has become one of the most important issues in the nutritional management of children. Formal guidelines related to nutrient requirements for vitamin D in healthy children, recommending dietary intakes of 400 IU per day for infants and 600 IU per day for children over 1 year of age, were released by the Institute of Medicine in November 2010. However, application of these guidelines to children with acute and chronic illnesses is less clear. In this Review, we consider major illness categories and specific examples of conditions in children that might be affected by vitamin D. This information can be used in developing both model systems of investigation and clinical trials of vitamin D in children with acute and chronic illnesses.
    Nature Reviews Endocrinology 02/2013; 9(3). DOI:10.1038/nrendo.2012.259 · 13.28 Impact Factor
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