The emerging role of plasma lipidomics in cardiovascular drug discovery.
ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: With the rising global incidence of cardiovascular disease, the challenge for the pharmaceutical industry is to identify novel biomarkers that will allow not only for the development of the next generation of cardiometabolic therapeutics, but also to serve as a sensitive mechanism to monitor and predict drug efficacy and potential toxicity. The advent of an 'omics' (systems biological) approach has vast implications for future disease treatment and prevention. Lipidomics is the latest addition to the 'omics' family and is rapidly gaining attention due to the technological improvements in mass spectrometry, allowing for the characterization of large number of lipids (and their respective subclasses) in a short amount of time with relatively minimal preparation. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the various techniques involved in plasma lipidomics as well as outline the role that lipidomics will play in phenotyping disease processes and corresponding therapeutic strategies. The article was formed through comprehensive Medline search of relevant publications in this area. EXPERT OPINION: Despite the wealth of data that will emerge regarding the various lipid-molecular interactions and the functions of lipids within cells, a major challenge will be the parallel emergence of novel bioinformatics platforms in order to integrate this enormous data set with information generated from the emerging fields of genomics and proteomic analysis. Despite these challenges, lipidomics is likely to result in the reclassification of diseases from a molecular perspective and play a key role the eventuation of personalized medicine.
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ABSTRACT: Both as a component of metabolic syndrome and as an independent entity, hypertension poses a continued challenge with regard to its diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment. Previous studies have documented connections between hypertension and indicators of lipid metabolism. Novel technologies, such as plasma lipidomic profiling, promise a better understanding of disorders in which there is a derangement of the lipid metabolism. However, association of plasma lipidomic profiles with hypertension in a high-risk population, such as Mexican Americans, has not been evaluated before. Using the rich data and sample resource from the ongoing San Antonio Family Heart Study, we conducted plasma lipidomic profiling by combining high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectroscopy to characterize 319 lipid species in 1192 individuals from 42 large and extended Mexican American families. Robust statistical analyses using polygenic regression models, liability threshold models, and bivariate trait analyses implemented in the SOLAR software were conducted after accounting for obesity, insulin resistance, and relative abundance of various lipoprotein fractions. Diacylglycerols, in general, and the DG 16:0/22:5 and DG 16:0/22:6 lipid species, in particular, were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), as well as liability of incident hypertension measured during 7140.17 person-years of follow-up. Four lipid species, including the DG 16:0/22:5 and DG 16:0/22:6 species, showed significant genetic correlations with the liability of hypertension in bivariate trait analyses. Our results demonstrate the value of plasma lipidomic profiling in the context of hypertension and identify disturbance of diacylglycerol metabolism as an independent biomarker of hypertension.Hypertension 06/2013; · 6.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mood disorders such as major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder-and their consequent effects on the individual and society-are among the most disabling and costly of all medical illnesses. Although a number of antidepressant treatments are available in clinical practice, many patients still undergo multiple and lengthy medication trials before experiencing relief of symptoms. Therefore a tremendous need exists to improve current treatment options and to facilitate more rapid, successful treatment in patients suffering from the deleterious neurobiological effects of ongoing depression. Toward that end, ongoing research is exploring the identification of biomarkers that might be involved in prevention, diagnosis, treatment response, severity, or prognosis of depression. Biomarkers evaluating treatment response will be the focus of this review, given the importance of providing relief to patients in a more expedient and systematic manner. A novel approach to developing such biomarkers of response would incorporate interventions with a rapid onset of action-such as sleep deprivation or intravenous drugs (e.g., ketamine or scopolamine). This alternative translational model for new treatments in psychiatry would facilitate shorter studies, improve feasibility, and increase higher compound throughput testing for these devastating disorders.Biological psychiatry 01/2013; · 8.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health issue. Although its progression is reported to be closely associated with lipids, the way in which the plasma lipidome changes during the development of chronic HCV infection in humans is currently unknown. Using an improved quantitative high-throughput lipidomic platform, we profiled 284 lipids in human plasma samples obtained from healthy controls (n = 11) and patients with chronic HCV infection (n = 113). The intrahepatic inflammation grade (IG) of liver tissue was determined by biopsy. Two types of mass spectrometers were integrated into a single lipidomic platform with a wide dynamic range. Compared with previous methods, the performance of this method was significantly improved in terms of both the number of target sphingolipids identified and the specificity of the high-resolution mass spectrometer. As a result, 44 sphingolipids, one diacylglycerol, 43 triglycerides, 24 glycerophosphocholines, and 5 glycerophospho-ethanolamines were successfully identified and quantified. The lipid profiles of individuals with chronic HCV infection were significantly different from those of healthy individuals. Several lipids showed significant differences between mild and severe intrahepatic inflammation grades, indicating that they could be utilized as novel noninvasive indicators of intrahepatic IG. Using multivariate analysis, healthy controls could be discriminated from HCV patients based on their plasma lipidome; however, patients with different IGs were not well discriminated. Based on these results, we speculate that variations in lipid composition arise as a result of HCV infection, and are caused by HCV-related digestive system disorders rather than progression of the disease.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 11/2013; · 3.66 Impact Factor