Periodontal Status and Hyperlipidemia: Statin Users vs. Non-Users.
ABSTRACT Background: The association between serum lipids and periodontal disease has been studied predominantly in chronic periodontitis patients with limited data available regarding periodontal status of hyperlipidemic subjects. Meanwhile, the impact of statins on the periodontal health of the population also remains largely under-explored. This study aims to assess the periodontal status among hyperlipidemic subjects and statin users. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 94 hyperlipidemic subjects (50 on statins and 44 on non-pharmacologic therapy), and 46 normolipidemic controls underwent periodontal examination [plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)]. Biochemical parameters measured included serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Results: PD and GI were significantly higher in non-statin hyperlipidemics compared to normolipidemic [(P <0.001(PD) and P <0.05 (GI)] and statin group [(P=0.001 (PD) and P <0.05 (GI)]. Periodontal parameters between statin and normolipidemic group did not differ significantly. After adjusting for confounders, positive and significant correlations were observed between PD and TG, TC and LDL while CAL shared correlation with TC and LDL. GI was correlated with TG and TC. Regression analyses revealed that while TC was significantly associated with PD (P <0.001), LDL showed significant association with CAL (P=0.013). TG showed significant association with GI (P=0.020). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that relative to the general population, hyperlipidemic subjects are more prone to periodontal disease. Also, within the limits of this study, it may be stated that statins have a positive impact on periodontal health.
08/2014; 4(3):194-202. DOI:10.1902/cap.2014.130084
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus and periodontitis are both common, chronic diseases. It is generally accepted that the inter-relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis is a two-way relationship, i.e. the presence of one condition tends to increases the risk and severity of the other, and vice versa. Mechanisms for this two-way relationship are largely unknown. Hyperlipidemia is a group of disorders characterized by an excess of lipids in the bloodstream. Hyperlipidemia increases the risk of diabetes and peridontitis. On the other hand, diabetes and periodontitis could result in hyperlipidemia. The purposes of this review were: (1) examine the two-way relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontitis; (2) discuss the potential synergistic interactions of hyperlipidemia to both diabetes mellitus and periodontitis; and (3) explore the mechanisms through which hyperlipidemia affects the development of both diseases. The effects of hyperlipidemia on insulin secretion and pro-inflammatory cytokines production (TNF-α, IL-1β) play an important role on the pathogenesis of diabetes and periodontitis. A model is proposed suggesting the important role of hyperlipidemia in the two-way relationship between diabetes and periodontitis. As our understanding of the inter-relationship expands between hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and periodontitis, therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting hyperlipidemia should be advocated for the clinical management of diabetes and periodontitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Archives of Oral Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.11.008 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Parodontitis und Atherosklerose zeigen eine hohe Prävalenz, gemeinsame Risikofaktoren und pathogenetische Mechanismen. Der Entzündungsprozess stellt, wie schon von Virchow angenommen, das kausale Verbindungsglied dar. Einige der involvierten Pathomechanismen werden diskutiert. Trotz einer verfrühten Schlussfolgerung der American Heart Association, die auf einer inkompletten Literatursuche basiert, deuten biochemische und klinische Daten auf mehr als nur eine Assoziation hin. Eine Verbesserung der Mundhygiene und Behandlung der Parodontitis wie auch der gemeinsamen Risikofaktoren sollte nicht nur das Fortschreiten der Atherosklerose bremsen, sondern auch zu einer Reduktion bzw. einem späteren Auftreten von Gefäßereignissen führen. Abstract Periodontitis and atherosclerosis have a high prevalence and have many risk factors and pathogenetic mechanisms in common. The inflammatory process, as already claimed by Virchow, seems to be the common link. Some of the pathomechanisms involved are discussed. Despite a premature conclusion based on an incomplete literature search by the American Heart Association, biochemical and clinical data indicate that there is more than only an association. Improving oral health and treatment of periodontal disease and the common modifiable cardiovascular risk factors may impede the progression of atherosclerosis and decrease or delay the later occurrence of vascular events.Stomatologie 03/2013; 110(1-2):27-31. DOI:10.1007/s00715-012-0198-5