Periodontal Status and Hyperlipidemia: Statin Users vs. Non-Users.
ABSTRACT Background: The association between serum lipids and periodontal disease has been studied predominantly in chronic periodontitis patients with limited data available regarding periodontal status of hyperlipidemic subjects. Meanwhile, the impact of statins on the periodontal health of the population also remains largely under-explored. This study aims to assess the periodontal status among hyperlipidemic subjects and statin users. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 94 hyperlipidemic subjects (50 on statins and 44 on non-pharmacologic therapy), and 46 normolipidemic controls underwent periodontal examination [plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL)]. Biochemical parameters measured included serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Results: PD and GI were significantly higher in non-statin hyperlipidemics compared to normolipidemic [(P <0.001(PD) and P <0.05 (GI)] and statin group [(P=0.001 (PD) and P <0.05 (GI)]. Periodontal parameters between statin and normolipidemic group did not differ significantly. After adjusting for confounders, positive and significant correlations were observed between PD and TG, TC and LDL while CAL shared correlation with TC and LDL. GI was correlated with TG and TC. Regression analyses revealed that while TC was significantly associated with PD (P <0.001), LDL showed significant association with CAL (P=0.013). TG showed significant association with GI (P=0.020). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that relative to the general population, hyperlipidemic subjects are more prone to periodontal disease. Also, within the limits of this study, it may be stated that statins have a positive impact on periodontal health.
- SourceAvailable from: Antonio Magán Fernández[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine whether simvastatin consumption and hyperlipidemia are associated with a worse periodontal condition and specific bone activity biomarkers. Material and methods: This cross-sectional and analytic study included 73 patients divided into three groups: simvastatin-treated patients with hyperlipidemia (n=29); patients with hyperlipidemia treated by diet alone (n=28); and normolipidemic patients (controls, n=16). The periodontal clinical variables of all participants were gathered, a blood sample was drawn from each to determine the lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), LDL, and HDL), serum levels of acute-phase reactants (C-reactive protein), erythrocyte sedimentation rate and bone metabolism markers (osteoprotegerin [OPG], osteocalcin, procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide, and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen). Results: The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was higher in the diet-treated hyperlipidemic patients than in the normolipidemic controls (p=0.037). Serum OPG concentrations were significantly higher in the simvastatin-treated hyperlipidemia patients than in the diet-treated hyperlipidemic patients (p=0.049). Multivariable linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, tobacco, and alcohol revealed that, in comparison to the normolipidemic patients, the simvastatin-treated hyperlipidemic patients showed a mean reduction of 0.8 mm (95%-CI=-1.5 to 0.0, p=0.050) in clinical attachment loss (CA loss). Conclusions: Within the limits of this study, our findings suggest that the intake of simvastatin is associated with increasing serum OPG concentrations and this could have a protective effect against bone destruction and periodontal CA loss. The baseline systemic inflammatory state of hyperlipidemic patients is indicated by their increased ESR.Journal of Periodontology 02/2014; · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a complex arterial pathological development underlying heart attack and stroke and a leading cause of death in developed and now also in developing countries. The primary processes that lead to the inflammatory lipid-laden proliferative lesion, obstructing the blood flow and referred to as atherosclerotic plaque are dyslipidaemia and inflammation. Here we will review one of the most efficient classes of drugs indicated for management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), statins. We will assess their pleiotropic effects that emerged from CVD applications, focusing this review specifically on plausible antimicrobial activity. Only recently gaining strength, the recognition of possible antibacterial activity may extend the statin applicability for vascular as well as to other critical inflammatory conditions.Cardiovascular research 03/2014; · 5.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effect of an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet (AT) on the alveolar bone loss in rats with ligature-induced experimental periodontitis (EP). Female Wistar adult rats were assigned either a control (Co) or an AT diet fed for 9 weeks. The AT diet was high in saturated fat, cholesterol and energy. At week 2, animals were subjected to a unilateral ligature (L) around the left first molar (Co+L and AT+L). The contra lateral first right molar (not ligated) of both groups (Co and AT) were used as untreated controls. At week 9, blood was drawn, rats were euthanized, hemi-mandibles removed and stained digital photographs (buccal and lingual surfaces) and radiographs were obtained for quantification of alveolar bone loss (ABL). The ABL was determined by distance and area methods (mm(2)) and X-rays were used for periodontal bone support (PBS), (%). Rats in the AT group exhibited a 17% increase in energy intake, gained significant body weight and showed the highest serum total-cholesterol (T-C) and non-high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p<0.001). The amount of lost periodontal bone was the greatest in AT+L rats. AT feedings significantly increased the buccal area and distance of bone loss when compared with the unligated-teeth (p<0.001). The rats in the AT+L group also achieved the lowest percentage of PBS (p<0.001). The AT and Co+L rats showed similar PBS. This method more clearly elucidated the effect of the cholesterol-rich AT, with and without the influence of molar ligature, compared to the morphometric analysis. The alveolar bone loss of EP was magnified by ingestion of an atherogenic diet high in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol.Archives of oral biology 04/2014; 59(7):679-686. · 1.65 Impact Factor