[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal replacement therapy is of vital importance in the treatment of crush syndrome victims, who are frequently encountered after catastrophic earthquakes. The Marmara earthquake, which struck Northwestern Turkey in August 1999, was characterized by 477 victims who needed dialysis.
Within the first week of the disaster, questionnaires containing 63 clinical and laboratory variables were sent to 35 reference hospitals that treated the victims. Information considering the features of dialyses obtained through these questionnaires was submitted to analysis.
Overall, 639 casualties with renal complications were registered, 477 of whom (mean age 32.3 +/- 13.7 years, 269 male) needed dialysis. Among these, 452 were treated by a single dialysis modality (437 intermittent hemodialysis, 11 continuous renal replacement therapy and 4 peritoneal dialysis), while 25 victims needed more than one type of dialysis. In total, 5137 hemodialysis sessions were performed (mean 11.1 +/- 8.0 sessions per patient) and mean duration of hemodialysis support was 13.4 +/- 9.0 days; this duration was shorter in the non-survivors (7.0 +/- 8.7 vs. 10.0 +/- 9.8 days, P = 0.005). Thirty-four victims who underwent continuous renal replacement therapy had higher mortality rates (41.2 vs. 13.7%, P < 0.0001). Only eight victims were treated by peritoneal dialysis, four of whom also required hemodialysis or continuous renal replacement therapy. The mortality rate in the dialyzed victims was 17.2%, a significantly higher figure compared to the mortality rate of the non-dialyzed patients with renal problems (9.3%; P = 0.015).
Substantial amounts of dialysis support may be necessary for treating the victims of mass disasters complicated with crush syndrome. Dialyzed patients are characterized by higher rates of morbidity and mortality.
Kidney International 01/2003; 62(6):2264-71. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2002.00669.x · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Major earthquakes are followed by a substantial number of crush syndromes and pigment-induced acute renal failures (ARFs). The natural evolution of this problem rapidly leads to death. Today's possibilities of dialysis therapy enable saving numerous lives that otherwise would be lost. Currently, the primary problem is organizational, if huge catastrophes occur and complex therapeutic options need to be offered to a large number of victims.
Following the 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia, the International Society of Nephrology (ISN) established the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force (RDRTF) in order to anticipate organizational problems related to renal care in the aftermath of large natural and human-made catastrophes. The proposed concept was one of a dialysis advance team, which would assess the needs and possibilities of dialysis treatment, to be followed by supportive manpower and supplies. This article describes the organizational aspects of a rescue action that was undertaken following the Marmara earthquake, which occurred on August 17th, 1999, in northwestern Turkey. In conjunction with Médecins Sans Frontières, a team landed at Istanbul Airport less than 22 hours after the disaster, and logistic and material support as well as manpower were provided over a period of approximately one month. Specific attention was paid to the choice of the renal replacement therapy, the transport of victims and materials, the implementation of preventive rehydration, and the problem of chronic renal failure patients dialyzed in the damaged area.
We demonstrate how previously anticipated international support may offer moral, financial, as well as logistical help to local nephrological communities confronted with serious disasters.
Kidney International 03/2001; 59(2):783-91. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.059002783.x · 8.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: On 6 April 2009, an earthquake struck the city of L'Aquila and the surrounding Abruzzo mountains. The disaster left 66,000 people homeless, while 1500 were wounded and 298 died. Although Europe as a whole is not so often affected by massive earthquakes, Italy is an exception with 12 earthquakes with an intensity >6.0 on the Richter scale during the last 100 years. This article offers preliminary information on the L'Aquila earthquake. For the time being, nine AKI patients who needed dialysis treatment are known. In all of them, kidney function recovered. This positive result can be attributed to the efficient and intensive rescue efforts coupled to the availability of disaster plans that had been developed in advance. This article stresses the importance of (i) advance planning of disaster rescue; (ii) the inclusion in these plans of approaches for kidney problems and their complications; (iii) the formulation of recommendations supporting (para-)medical professionals in their preventive, therapeutic and logistic approach to massive incidences of crush.
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