Unusually aggressive type 1 gastric carcinoid: a case report with a review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Gastric carcinoids are rare tumors of the stomach. Gastric carcinoid type 1 is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis, and because of a low metastatic potential, is the most benign type. Death from metastatic disease has been reported in only three patients in a review including 724 cases. The present report refers to a 60-year-old man who was affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus and pernicious anemia and died from metastatic gastric carcinoid type 1. In 1998, a well-differentiated 1.2 cm gastric neuroendocrine tumor, immunoreactive for chromogranin A, with a Ki-67 index less than 2% and with infiltration to the submucosal layer was diagnosed and enucleated. In 2002, a new well-differentiated gastric endocrine tumor 6 mm in size with a Ki-67 of approximately 2% was detected, and endoscopic ultrasound confirmed it to be limited to the submucosal layer. The patient refused antrectomy and started long-acting somatostatin analog (lanreotide) in 2005 when the Ki-67 index was 7%, but he stopped the treatment after 4 months. In 2007, despite previous endoscopic stability, endoscopic ultrasound showed an infiltrating gastric lesion of 7 cm. At surgery, the disease appeared to be extended to the liver and to the peritoneum (well-differentiated endocrine carcinoma, Ki-67 40%) with both hepatic and massive peritoneal metastases. A regimen of somatostatin analog was soon restarted; however, the disease continued to spread, and the patient died 6 months later. Overall, despite their generally benign course, type 1 gastric carcinoids may have malignant potential, a finding that should be considered when planning the medical workup of these patients.
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ABSTRACT: To analyze tumor biology and the outcome of differentiated treatment in relation to tumor subtype in patients with gastric carcinoid. Gastric carcinoids may be subdivided into ECL cell carcinoids (type 1 associated with atrophic gastritis, type 2 associated with gastrinoma, type 3 without predisposing conditions) and miscellaneous types (type 4). The biologic behavior and prognosis vary considerably in relation to type. A total of 65 patients from 24 hospitals (51 type 1, 1 type 2, 4 type 3, and 9 type 4) were included. Management recommendations were issued for newly diagnosed cases, that is, endoscopic or surgical treatment of type 1 and 2 carcinoids (including antrectomy to abolish hypergastrinemia) and radical resection for type 3 and 4 carcinoids. Infiltration beyond the submucosa occurred in 9 of 51 type 1, 4 of 4 type 3, and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids. Metastases occurred in 4 of 51 type 1 (3 regional lymph nodes, 1 liver), the single type 2 (regional lymph nodes), 3 of 4 type 3 (all liver), and 7 of 9 type 4 carcinoids (all liver). Of the patients with type 1 carcinoid, 3 had no specific treatment, 40 were treated with endoscopic or surgical excision (in 10 cases combined with antrectomy), 7 underwent total gastrectomy, and 1 underwent proximal gastric resection. Radical tumor removal was not possible in 2 of 4 patients with type 3 and 7 of 9 patients with type 4 carcinoid. Five- and 10-year crude survival rates were 96.1% and 73.9% for type 1 (not different from the general population), but only 33.3% and 22.2% for type 4 carcinoids. Subtyping of gastric carcinoids is helpful in the prediction of malignant potential and long-term survival and is a guide to management. Long-term survival did not differ from that of the general population regarding type 1 carcinoids but was poor regarding type 4 carcinoids.Annals of Surgery 08/2005; 242(1):64-73. · 6.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gastric carcinoid tumors are a rare disease. Previously, total gastrectomy was regarded as the treatment of choice. However, differences in biological malignancy have recently led to the increased use of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for treatment. We studied the outcome of EMR in patients with gastric carcinoids who were treated at our hospital and discuss the indications for endoscopic treatment. Between 1986 and 1999 we carried out gastric mucosal resection in five patients with gastric carcinoid tumors. The procedure used for EMR was either strip biopsy or endoscopic aspiration mucosectomy. The carcinoid tumors measured 10 mm or less in four of the five patients. Two patients had type A gastritis, and all had hypergastrinemia. There was no evidence of recurrence during follow-up (range 6 - 66 months; mean 32.6 months). EMR is useful in the management of type 1 gastric carcinoids as classified by Rindi (hypergastrinemia; tumor diameter of 10 mm or less).Endoscopy 04/2003; 35(3):203-6. · 5.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gastric carcinoids are uncommon, and are unlike carcinoids at other gastrointestinal sites, clinically and pathologically. The authors studied specimens from 104 patients with gastric carcinoid, with study emphasis being placed on pathologic features, immunohistochemistry, clinical associations, and prognostic factors. The average age of the 47 male patients and 57 female patients was 61 years. Twenty-seven patients had chronic atrophic gastritis, 12 had pernicious anemia, and 6 had hypergastrinemia; no patient had carcinoid syndrome. Most of the tumors were confined to the mucosa and submucosa. Lymph node metastases were present in only one patient. The tumors were argyrophilic in 84% and argentaffin in 14%. Chromogranin tested positive in all patients; serotonin was detected in one-third; other hormones were much less common. Gastrin-positive tumors were antral. Of the 62 patients with follow-up, 44 were alive without disease, 4 were alive with disease, and 14 were dead (4 died of carcinoid-related disease). None of the deceased had pernicious anemia or hypergastrinemia. The tumors in patients with a fatal outcome were 2 cm or larger. Gastric carcinoids generally are indolent tumors, particularly when associated with pernicious anemia or hypergastrinemia or when smaller than 2 cm. Chromogranin is the most sensitive marker.Cancer 05/1994; 73(8):2053-8. · 5.20 Impact Factor