Influence of yeast-derived 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide on circulating cytokines and chemokines with respect to upper respiratory tract infections
ABSTRACT Wellmune WGP is a food supplement containing a refined 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide that improves the antimicrobial activity of the innate immune cells by the priming of lectin sites. This study aimed to investigate whether Wellmune decreases the frequency and severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms over 90 d during the peak URTI season in healthy university students. The secondary aims included an assessment of plasma cytokine and chemokine levels.
This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial lasting 90 d. One hundred healthy individuals (18-65 y old, mean age ~21 y) were randomized to 250 mg of Wellmune once daily or to an identical rice flour-based placebo. Health was recorded daily and two or more reported URTI symptoms for 2 consecutive days triggered a medical assessment and blood collection within 24 h. The URTI symptom severity was monitored. Plasma cytokines and chemokines were measured at day 0, day 90, and during the confirmed URTI.
Ninety-seven participants completed the trial (Wellmune, n = 48; placebo, n = 49). The Wellmune tended to decrease the total number of days with URTI symptoms (198 d, 4.6%, versus 241 d, 5.5% in the control group, P = 0.06). The ability to "breathe easily" was significantly improved in the Wellmune group; the other severity scores showed no significant difference. Cytokines and chemokines were not different between the groups at study entry or day 90, but monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was lower in the Wellmune group during the URTI.
Wellmune may decrease the duration and severity of URTI. Larger studies are needed to demonstrate this.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The effect of brewers' yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-D-glucan consumption on the number of common cold episodes in healthy subject was investigated. METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, multicentric clinical trial, 162 healthy participants with recurring infections received 900 mg of either placebo (n = 81) or an insoluble yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-D-glucan preparation (n = 81) per day over a course of 16 weeks. Subjects were instructed to document each occurring common cold episode in a diary and to rate ten predefined infection symptoms during an infections period, resulting in a symptom score. The subjects were examined by the investigator during the episode visit on the 5th day of each cold episode. RESULTS: In the per protocol population, supplementation with insoluble yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-glucan reduced the number of symptomatic common cold infections by 25 % as compared to placebo (p = 0.041). The mean symptom score was 15 % lower in the beta-glucan as opposed to the placebo group (p = 0.125). Beta-glucan significantly reduced sleep difficulties caused by cold episode as compared to placebo (p = 0.028). Efficacy of yeast beta-glucan was rated better than the placebo both by physicians (p = 0.004) participants (p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that yeast beta-glucan preparation increased the body's potential to defend against invading pathogens.European Journal of Nutrition 01/2013; 52(8). DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0492-z · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute upper respiratory tract conditions (URTCs), including the common cold, allergic rhinitis (AR), and acute sinusitis, are among the most common afflictions worldwide, affecting millions of individuals annually in the United States alone. A common theme among these conditions is that they share similar symptomatology and are often inadequately treated. These conditions typically cause mild, albeit bothersome, symptoms for a typical duration of 7 to 10 days in the case of the common cold, ≥ 2 weeks for AR exacerbations, and > 4 weeks for acute sinusitis. The common cold and AR elicit localized (upper airway) and systemic inflammatory cascades responsible for symptoms such as cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, watery eyes, sneezing, headache, and general malaise. Acute sinusitis typically occurs because of a secondary bacterial or fungal infection of mucus-clogged nasal and sinus cavities and has symptoms similar to those previously listed, with the addition of increased facial and ear pressure/pain. Acute URTC symptoms are frequently managed with over-the-counter (OTC) products. Currently available OTC options can have limited efficacy in treating the broad array of symptoms associated with acute URTCs, and some have unwanted side effects. There is an unmet need for OTC therapies that have broad clinical activity, can reduce the severity and duration of illness when taken at the first sign of symptoms, and/or provide prophylaxis. This review article examines the available evidence supporting emerging and potentially new OTC pharmacologic, nutraceutical, and nonpharmacologic therapies on the horizon for the treatment of acute URTCs. This review is not intended to be a comprehensive evaluation of all potential URTC therapies, and the approvability of many of the agents discussed for OTC use in the United States may be subject to debate.Postgraduate Medicine 01/2013; 125(1):82-96. DOI:10.3810/pgm.2013.01.2605 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Yeast-derived beta-glucans (Y-BG) are considered immunomodulatory compounds suggested to enhance the defense against infections and exert anticarcinogenic effects. Specific preparations have received Generally Recognized as Safe status and acceptance as novel food ingredients by European Food Safety Authority. In human trials, orally administered Y-BG significantly reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in individuals susceptible to upper respiratory tract infections, whereas significant differences were not seen in healthy individuals. Increased salivary IgA in healthy individuals, increased IL-10 levels in obese subjects, beneficial changes in immunological parameters in allergic patients, and activated monocytes in cancer patients have been reported following Y-BG intake. The studies were conducted with different doses (7.5-1500 mg/day), using different preparations that vary in their primary structure, molecular weight, and solubility. In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and levels of stress-induced cytokines and enhanced antineoplastic effects of cytotoxic agents. Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury have also been reported. In conclusion, additional studies following good clinical practice principles are needed in which well-defined Y-BG preparations are used and immune markers and disease endpoints are assessed. Since optimal dosing may depend on preparation characteristics, dose-response curves might be assessed to find the optimal dose for a specific preparation.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 01/2014; 58(1). DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201300338 · 4.91 Impact Factor