Influence of yeast-derived 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide on circulating cytokines and chemokines with respect to upper respiratory tract infections
The Dove Clinic, Winchester, United Kingdom. Nutrition
(Impact Factor: 2.93).
03/2012; 28(6):665-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2011.11.012
Wellmune WGP is a food supplement containing a refined 1,3/1,6 glucopolysaccharide that improves the antimicrobial activity of the innate immune cells by the priming of lectin sites. This study aimed to investigate whether Wellmune decreases the frequency and severity of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms over 90 d during the peak URTI season in healthy university students. The secondary aims included an assessment of plasma cytokine and chemokine levels.
This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial lasting 90 d. One hundred healthy individuals (18-65 y old, mean age ~21 y) were randomized to 250 mg of Wellmune once daily or to an identical rice flour-based placebo. Health was recorded daily and two or more reported URTI symptoms for 2 consecutive days triggered a medical assessment and blood collection within 24 h. The URTI symptom severity was monitored. Plasma cytokines and chemokines were measured at day 0, day 90, and during the confirmed URTI.
Ninety-seven participants completed the trial (Wellmune, n = 48; placebo, n = 49). The Wellmune tended to decrease the total number of days with URTI symptoms (198 d, 4.6%, versus 241 d, 5.5% in the control group, P = 0.06). The ability to "breathe easily" was significantly improved in the Wellmune group; the other severity scores showed no significant difference. Cytokines and chemokines were not different between the groups at study entry or day 90, but monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was lower in the Wellmune group during the URTI.
Wellmune may decrease the duration and severity of URTI. Larger studies are needed to demonstrate this.
Available from: Heike Stier
- "Even though there was no statistically significant difference in the total number of days with reported URTIs (β-glucans 198 days in 4.6%, versus 241 days in 5.5% in the control group, p = 0.06), the symptoms tended to be lesser in the β-glucan group. Of all assessed symptoms, only the item “ability to breathe easily” was significantly better in the β-glucan group than in the placebo group
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ABSTRACT: Beta-glucans are a heterogeneous group of natural polysaccharides mostly investigated for their immunological effects. Due to the low systemic availability of oral preparations, it has been thought that only parenterally applied beta-glucans can modulate the immune system. However, several in vivo and in vitro investigations have revealed that orally applied beta-glucans also exert such effects. Various receptor interactions, explaining possible mode of actions, have been detected. The effects mainly depend on the source and structure of the beta-glucans. In the meantime, several human clinical trials with dietary insoluble yeast beta-glucans have been performed. The results confirm the previous findings of in vivo studies. The results of all studies taken together clearly indicate that oral intake of insoluble yeast beta-glucans is safe and has an immune strengthening effect.
Nutrition Journal 04/2014; 13(1):38. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-13-38 · 2.60 Impact Factor
Available from: Joerg Gruenwald
- "A proprietary insoluble yeast beta-glucan supplementation reduced the symptoms associated with upper respiratory tract infections but not the incidence in marathon runners . Likewise, the same preparation did not impact the incidence of common cold in healthy subjects in two independent studies [20, 21]. Even though the number of infections was not different, none of the subjects supplemented with beta-glucan missed school or work due to colds as opposed to placebo in the study conducted by Feldman et al. . "
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The effect of brewers’ yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-d-glucan consumption on the number of common cold episodes in healthy subject was investigated.
In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, multicentric clinical trial, 162 healthy participants with recurring infections received 900 mg of either placebo (n = 81) or an insoluble yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-d-glucan preparation (n = 81) per day over a course of 16 weeks. Subjects were instructed to document each occurring common cold episode in a diary and to rate ten predefined infection symptoms during an infections period, resulting in a symptom score. The subjects were examined by the investigator during the episode visit on the 5th day of each cold episode.
In the per protocol population, supplementation with insoluble yeast (1,3)-(1,6)-beta-glucan reduced the number of symptomatic common cold infections by 25 % as compared to placebo (p = 0.041). The mean symptom score was 15 % lower in the beta-glucan as opposed to the placebo group (p = 0.125). Beta-glucan significantly reduced sleep difficulties caused by cold episode as compared to placebo (p = 0.028). Efficacy of yeast beta-glucan was rated better than the placebo both by physicians (p = 0.004) participants (p = 0.012).
The present study demonstrated that yeast beta-glucan preparation increased the body’s potential to defend against invading pathogens.
European Journal of Nutrition 01/2013; 52(8). DOI:10.1007/s00394-013-0492-z · 3.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prolonged and high-intensity exercise affects immune function and leads to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in endurance athletes. The increased incidence of URTI symptoms may negatively affect athletic performance. Various nutritional supplements have been tested in the last decade for their ability to prevent developing of URTIs or reduce their incidence. One of the most promising nutritional supplements is β-glucan, a well-known immunomodulator with positive effects on functioning of immunocompetent cells. However, β-glucans are a diverse group of molecules that vary in macromolecular structure, solubility, viscosity, molecular weight and biological activity. This fact is supported by results from recent human clinical studies where β-glucans of different origin and properties differed in ability to prevent or reduce incidence of URTIs in athletes. It has been found that pleuran, a unique insoluble β-glucan isolated from mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, significantly reduced the incidence of URTI symptoms in athletes. In addition, it was able to increase the number of circulating natural killer cells and to prevent reduction of natural killer cell activity. Contrarily, soluble oat β-glucan supplementation did not alter URTI incidence in endurance athletes. This difference suggests that the immunomodulatory capacity of β-glucans is strongly dependent on solubility and structural factors such as backbone structure and degree of branching. This review refers to using pleuran as a natural supplement that is able to protect endurance athletes against development of URTI.
Acute Topis in Sport Nutrition, 05/2012: pages 57-61; Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers.
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