Evidence for coordinated functional activity within the extended amygdala of non-human and human primates

Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53719, USA.
NeuroImage (Impact Factor: 6.36). 03/2012; 61(4):1059-66. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.03.045
Source: PubMed


Neuroanatomists posit that the central nucleus of the amygdala (Ce) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) comprise two major nodes of a macrostructural forebrain entity termed the extended amygdala. The extended amygdala is thought to play a critical role in adaptive motivational behavior and is implicated in the pathophysiology of maladaptive fear and anxiety. Resting functional connectivity of the Ce was examined in 107 young anesthetized rhesus monkeys and 105 young humans using standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods to assess temporal correlations across the brain. The data expand the neuroanatomical concept of the extended amygdala by finding, in both species, highly significant functional coupling between the Ce and the BST. These results support the use of in vivo functional imaging methods in nonhuman and human primates to probe the functional anatomy of major brain networks such as the extended amygdala.

Download full-text


Available from: Rémi Patriat, Oct 01, 2015
18 Reads
    • "Heimer et al. [2007], who advanced the 'extended amygdala' concept, have shown that the SLEA in humans consists of interdigitated cells in a path along the route shown in Figure 4G [deCampo and Fudge, 2013; Sakamoto et al., 1999]. This connecting path has also been shown, albeit with less spatial specificity, by Kalin and colleagues, who tested non-human primate and human resting functional connectivity by seeding the central nucleus of the amygdala [Birn et al., 2014; Oler et al., 2012]. The CeA (and SLEA), as well as the corticoamygdala transition region and basal nucleus (parvicellular subdivision) provide major inputs to the BNST [deCampo and Fudge, 2013], consistent with the present results. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a portion of the "extended amygdala," is implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and addiction disorders. Its small size and connection to other small regions prevents standard imaging techniques from easily capturing it and its connectivity with confidence. Seed-based resting state functional connectivity is an established method for mapping functional connections across the brain from a region of interest. We, therefore, mapped the BNST resting state network with high spatial resolution using 7 Tesla fMRI, demonstrating the in vivo reproduction of many human BNST connections previously described only in animal research. We identify strong BNST functional connectivity in amygdala, hippocampus and thalamic subregions, caudate, periaqueductal gray, hypothalamus, and cortical areas such as the medial PFC and precuneus. This work, which demonstrates the power of ultra-high field for mapping functional connections in the human, is an important step toward elucidating cortical and subcortical regions and subregions of the BNST network. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 07/2015; DOI:10.1002/hbm.22899 · 5.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "We employed R - fMRI data and graph - theory methods to systematically characterize topological age - related effects in the global and regional organization of the human brain functional connectome across the lifespan ( 7 - 85 years ) . Several previous studies used the NKI - RS sample we used in this work . Oler et al . ( 2012 ) and Laird et al . ( 2013 ) employed subsets of the data to investigate the functional connectivity patterns of amygdala and visual cortex in healthy people but did not focus the lifespan age effect . In contrast , Uddin and colleagues chose the developmental and adulthood parts of the NKI - RS sample for replication analyses of the ma"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human brain function undergoes complex transformations across the lifespan. We employed resting-state functional MRI and graph-theory approaches to systematically chart the lifespan trajectory of the topological organization of human whole-brain functional networks in 126 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 85 years. Brain networks were constructed by computing Pearson's correlations in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent temporal fluctuations among 1024 parcellation units followed by graph-based network analyses. We observed that the human brain functional connectome exhibited highly preserved non-random modular and rich club organization over the entire age range studied. Further quantitative analyses revealed linear decreases in modularity and inverted-U shaped trajectories of local efficiency and rich club architecture. Regionally heterogeneous age effects were mainly located in several hubs (e.g., default network, dorsal attention regions). Finally, we observed inverse trajectories of long- and short-distance functional connections, indicating that the reorganization of connectivity concentrates and distributes the brain's functional networks. Our results demonstrate topological changes in the whole-brain functional connectome across nearly the entire human lifespan, providing insights into the neural substrates underlying individual variations in behavior and cognition. These results have important implications for disease connectomics because they provide a baseline for evaluating network impairments in age-related neuropsychiatric disorders.
    11/2013; 7C:76-93. DOI:10.1016/j.dcn.2013.11.004
  • Source
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2012; 109(52). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1219167110 · 9.67 Impact Factor
Show more