6-Shogaol, a ginger product, modulates neuroinflammation: a new approach to neuroprotection.

Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University Global Campus, #1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Gyeonggi-do 446-701, Republic of Korea.
Neuropharmacology (Impact Factor: 4.82). 03/2012; 63(2):211-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2012.03.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Inflammatory processes in the central nervous system play an important role in a number of neurodegenerative diseases mediated by microglial activation, which results in neuronal cell death. Microglia act in immune surveillance and host defense while resting. When activated, they can be deleterious to neurons, even resulting in neurodegeneration. Therefore, the inhibition of microglial activation is considered a useful strategy in searching for neuroprotective agents. In this study, we investigated the effects of 6-shogaol, a pungent agent from Zingiber officinale Roscoe, on microglia activation in BV-2 and primary microglial cell cultures. 6-Shogaol significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effect was better than that of 6-gingerol, wogonin, or N-monomethyl-l-arginine, agents previously reported to inhibit nitric oxide. 6-Shogaol exerted its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and by downregulating cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression. In addition, 6-shogaol suppressed the microglial activation induced by LPS both in primary cortical neuron-glia culture and in an in vivo neuroinflammatory model. Moreover, 6-shogaol showed significant neuroprotective effects in vivo in transient global ischemia via the inhibition of microglia. These results suggest that 6-shogaol is an effective therapeutic agent for treating neurodegenerative diseases.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The immunomodulatory effects of the IL-27 and IL-33 and the anti-inflammatory effects of ginger have been reported in some studies. The aim was to evaluate the effects of the ginger extract on the expression of IL-27 and IL-33 in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In PBS-treated EAE mice the expression of IL-27 P28 was significantly lower whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly higher than unimmunized control mice. In 200 and 300 mg/kg ginger-treated EAE groups the expression of IL-27 P28 and IL-27 EBI3 was significantly higher whereas the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower than PBS-treated EAE mice. The EAE clinical symptoms and the pathological scores were significantly lower in ginger-treated EAE groups. These results showed that the ginger extract modulates the expression of the IL-27 and IL-33 in the spinal cord of EAE mice and ameliorates the clinical symptoms of disease.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 11/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Phenotypic and target-based approaches represent two principal strategies for identifying new bioactive compounds. In this review, differences between these approaches, as well as strengths and limitations thereof, are described by examples from the therapeutic area of Alzheimer's disease. Some of the central mechanisms of the disease that today are targets of screening campaigns are described. These mechanisms include acetylcholinesterase inhibition, amyloid-based approaches, and oxidative stress. Examples of assays using natural products, either as isolated pure compounds, unpurified or partially purified extracts, are given for each mechanism. Further, the article presents and discusses the pros and cons of both target-based and phenotypic approaches for the chosen mechanisms. In most cases, a thoroughly biology-driven selection of the used assays can be recommended, especially when taking into account the complexity of the disease in question. However, target-based assays also have their justification as long as there is an awareness of what the assay read-out stands for. A clear recommendation is thus for every researcher to critically consider the aim of their bioactivity screening efforts and to adopt the screening strategies most appropriate for the goals set.
    Planta Medica 09/2014; · 2.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ginger (Zingiber officinale), despite being a common dietary adjunct that contributes to the taste and flavor of foods, is well known to contain a number of potentially bioactive phytochemicals having valuable medicinal properties. Although recent studies have emphasized their benefits in Alzheimer's disease, limited information is available on the possible mechanism by which it renders anti-Alzheimer activity. Therefore, the present study seeks to employ molecular docking studies to investigate the binding interactions between active ginger components and various anti-Alzheimer drug targets. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking of 12 ligands with 13 different target proteins using AutoDock 4.2 program. Docking protocol was validated by re-docking of all native co-crystallized ligands into their original binding cavities exhibiting a strong correlation coefficient value (r (2)=0.931) between experimentally reported and docking predicted activities. This value suggests that the approach could be a promising computational tool to aid optimization of lead compounds obtained from ginger. Analysis of binding energy, predicted inhibition constant, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions of ligands with target receptors revealed acetylcholinesterase as most promising, while c-Jun N-terminal kinase was recognized as the least favorable anti-Alzheimer's drug target. Common structural requirements include hydrogen bond donor/acceptor area, hydrophobic domain, carbon spacer, and distal hydrophobic domain flanked by hydrogen bond donor/acceptor moieties. In addition, drug-likeness score and molecular properties responsible for a good pharmacokinetic profile were calculated by Osiris property explorer and Molinspiration online toolkit, respectively. None of the compounds violated Lipinski's rule of five, making them potentially promising drug candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2014; 8:2045-59. · 3.03 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
Jun 4, 2014