Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Protozoan Infections

Laboratório de Inflamação e Imunidade, Departamento de Imunologia, Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-902, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Journal of Parasitology Research 02/2012; 2012:413052. DOI: 10.1155/2012/413052
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a central role in immune and inflammatory responses. In the present paper, we discussed the participation of MIF in the immune response to protozoan parasite infections. As a general trend, MIF participates in the control of parasite burden at the expense of promoting tissue damage due to increased inflammation.

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Available from: Yuri Chaves Martins, Jul 23, 2015
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    • "This catalysis is dependent on the so-called CXXC motif that is found in the thioredoxin superfamily of TPORs. Since the host's MIF promotes host pro-inflammatory responses, it appears unexpected that MIF homologues have been found in helminth and protozoan parasites (Hewitson et al. 2008; Vermeire et al. 2008; Younis et al. 2012; Moreno and Geary 2008; Bozza et al. 2012; Zhang et al. 2012; Miska et al. 2013). Interestingly, nematode MIFs have been reported to induce alternatively activated macrophages in a Th2- polarised environment (Prieto-Lafuente et al. 2009) indicating that, in dependency on the prevailing cytokine pattern, nematode MIFs may either have pro-or counter-inflammatory effects on the immune response. "
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    ABSTRACT: The macrophage migration inhibitory factors (MIFs) from the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus (OvMIF) were compared to the MIFs from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (CeMIF) with respect to molecular, biochemical and immunological properties. Except for CeMIF-4, all other MIFs demonstrated tautomerase activity. Surprisingly, OvMIF-1 displayed oxidoreductase activity. The strongest immunostaining for OvMIF-1 was observed in the outer cellular covering of the adult worm body, the syncytial hypodermis; moderate immunostaining was observed in the uterine wall. The generation of a strong humoral immune response towards OvMIF-1 and reduced reactivity to OvMIF-2 was indicated by high IgG levels in patients infected with O. volvulus and cows infected with the closely related Onchocerca ochengi, both MIFs revealing identical amino acid sequences. Using Litomosoides sigmodontis-infected mice, a laboratory model for filarial infection, MIFs derived from the tissue-dwelling O. volvulus, the rodent gut-dwelling Strongyloides ratti and from free-living C. elegans were recognized, suggesting that L. sigmodontis MIF-specific IgM and IgG1 were produced during L. sigmodontis infection of mice and cross-reacted with all MIF proteins tested. Thus, MIF apparently functions as a target of B cell response during nematode infection, but in the natural Onchocerca-specific human and bovine infection, the induced antibodies can discriminate between MIFs derived from parasitic or free-living nematodes.
    Parasitology Research 07/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00436-013-3513-1 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is responsible for proinflammatory reactions in various infectious and non-infectious diseases. We have investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of epoxyazadiradione, a limonoid purified from neem (Azadirachta indica) fruits, against MIF. Epoxyazadiradione inhibited the tautomerase activity of MIF of both human (huMIF) and malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum (PfMIF) and Plasmodium yoelii (PyMIF)) non-competitively in a reversible fashion (K(i), 2.11-5.23 μm). Epoxyazadiradione also significantly inhibited MIF (huMIF, PyMIF, and PfMIF)-mediated proinflammatory activities in RAW 264.7 cells. It prevented MIF-induced macrophage chemotactic migration, NF-κB translocation to the nucleus, up-regulation of inducible nitric-oxide synthase, and nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells. Epoxyazadiradione not only exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in vitro but also in vivo. We tested the anti-inflammatory activity of epoxyazadiradione in vivo after co-administering LPS and MIF in mice to mimic the disease state of sepsis or bacterial infection. Epoxyazadiradione prevented the release of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α when LPS and PyMIF were co-administered to BALB/c mice. The molecular basis of interaction of epoxyazadiradione with MIFs was explored with the help of computational chemistry tools and a biological knowledgebase. Docking simulation indicated that the binding was highly specific and allosteric in nature. The well known MIF inhibitor (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid methyl ester (ISO-1) inhibited huMIF but not MIF of parasitic origin. In contrast, epoxyazadiradione inhibited both huMIF and plasmodial MIF, thus bearing an immense therapeutic potential against proinflammatory reactions induced by MIF of both malaria parasites and human.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2012; 287(29):24844-61. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.341321 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is an infectious disease caused mostly by Leishmania(Viannia)braziliensis in Southeast Brazil. The clinical manifestations are vast, ranging from asymptomatic to severe mucosal leishmaniasis (ML). It has been suggested that variation of the pathogen does not fully explain the response spectrum and the variability of clinical manifestations. Previous data have shown that host genetics also play a role in disease outcome. Herein, we have tested the association of TNF, IL10, IL12 and MIF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a case-control study design including 110 cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients and 682 healthy subjects. The genotype-phenotype correlation was also assessed using leishmania antigens to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from cured CL patients. Results demonstrated that the MIF -173C allele is associated with leishmaniasis outcome and also with lower levels of MIF in culture supernatants. Also, the TNF -308AA genotype was statistically increased among leishmaniasis patients. The results showed here suggest that the lower levels of MIF produced by MIF -173C carriers could influence the host-Leishmania interaction, favoring infection and disease progression. On the other hand, high TNF levels can contribute to tissue damage, consequently leading to skin lesions.
    Cytokine 10/2012; 61(1). DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.09.012 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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