Expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), which is critical for melanoma progression, is inhibited by both transcription factor GLI2 and transforming growth factor-β.
ABSTRACT The melanocyte-specific transcription factor M-MITF is involved in numerous aspects of melanoblast lineage biology including pigmentation, survival, and migration. It plays complex roles at all stages of melanoma progression and metastasis. We established previously that GLI2, a Kruppel-like transcription factor that acts downstream of Hedgehog signaling, is a direct transcriptional target of the TGF-β/SMAD pathway and contributes to melanoma progression, exerting antagonistic activities against M-MITF to control melanoma cell invasiveness. Herein, we dissected the molecular mechanisms underlying both TGF-β and GLI2-driven M-MITF gene repression. Using transient cell transfection experiments with M-MITF promoter constructs, chromatin immunoprecipitation, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified a GLI2 binding site within the -334/-296 region of the M-MITF promoter, critical for GLI2-driven transcriptional repression. This region is, however, not needed for inhibition of M-MITF promoter activity by TGF-β. We determined that TGF-β rapidly repressed protein kinase A activity, thus reducing both phospho-cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) levels and CREB-dependent transcription of the M-MITF promoter. Increased GLI2 binding to its cognate cis-element, associated with reduced CREB-dependent transcription, allowed maximal inhibition of the M-MITF promoter via two distinct mechanisms.
- SourceAvailable from: Cynthia M Simbulan-Rosenthal[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The list of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-related proteins in non-canonical TGF-β signaling is growing. Examples include receptor-Smads directing micro-RNA processing and inhibitory-Smads, e.g. Smad7, directing cell adhesion. Human skin grafts with fluorescently tagged melanoma cells revealed Smad7-expressing cells positioned themselves proximal to the dermal-epidermal junction and failed to form tumors, while control cells readily invaded and formed tumors within the dermis. Smad7 significantly inhibited β-catenin T41/S45 phosphorylation associated with degradation and induced a 4.5-fold increase in full-length N-cadherin. Cell adhesion assays confirmed a strong interaction between Smad7-expressing cells and primary dermal fibroblasts mediated via N-cadherin, while control cells were incapable of such interaction. Immunofluorescent analysis of skin grafts indicated N-cadherin homotypic interaction at the surface of both Smad7 cells and primary dermal fibroblasts, in contrast to control melanoma cells. We propose that Smad7 suppresses β-catenin degradation and promotes interaction with N-cadherin, stabilizing association with neighboring dermal fibroblasts, thus mitigating invasion.Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 12/2010; 23(6):795-808. · 5.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Hedgehog (HH) and TGF-β signaling pathways represent essential regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis. Pathway deregulation is a characteristic of various cancers. Recently, evidence for a convergence of these pathways at the level of the GLI2 transcription factor in the context of tumor initiation and progression to metastasis has emerged. This short review summarizes recent knowledge about GLI2 function and mechanisms of action downstream of TGF-β in cancer.Cancer Research 08/2011; 71(17):5606-10. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Transcription factor Glioblastoma-3 (Gli3) is cleaved in the anterior region of the limb bud to generate its repressor form. In contrast, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling from the posterior zone of polarizing activity blocks Gli3 processing and then induces the expression of Gli3 target genes, including Gli1. Here we report that the Ski corepressor binds to Gli3 and recruits the histone deacetylase complex. The Gli3-mediated repression was impaired by anti-Ski antibody and in Ski-deficient fibroblasts, and Shh-induced Gli1 gene transcription mediated by full-length Gli3 was inhibited by Ski. Furthermore, a Ski mutation enhanced the digit abnormalities caused by the Gli3 gene mutation. Thus, Ski plays an important role in pattern formation.Genes & Development 12/2002; 16(22):2843-8. · 12.44 Impact Factor