Regulation of myosin activation during cell-cell contact formation by Par3-Lgl antagonism: entosis without matrix detachment.

Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.
Molecular biology of the cell (Impact Factor: 5.98). 04/2012; 23(11):2076-91. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E11-11-0940
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cell-cell contact formation following cadherin engagement requires actomyosin contraction along the periphery of cell-cell contact. The molecular mechanisms that regulate myosin activation during this process are not clear. In this paper, we show that two polarity proteins, partitioning defective 3 homologue (Par3) and mammalian homologues of Drosophila Lethal (2) Giant Larvae (Lgl1/2), antagonize each other in modulating myosin II activation during cell-cell contact formation in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. While overexpression of Lgl1/2 or depletion of endogenous Par3 leads to enhanced myosin II activation, knockdown of Lgl1/2 does the opposite. Intriguingly, altering the counteraction between Par3 and Lgl1/2 induces cell-cell internalization during early cell-cell contact formation, which involves active invasion of the lateral cell-cell contact underneath the apical-junctional complexes and requires activation of the Rho-Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK)-myosin pathway. This is followed by predominantly nonapoptotic cell-in-cell death of the internalized cells and frequent aneuploidy of the host cells. Such effects are reminiscent of entosis, a recently described process observed when mammary gland epithelial cells were cultured in suspension. We propose that entosis could occur without matrix detachment and that overactivation of myosin or unbalanced myosin activation between contacting cells may be the driving force for entosis in epithelial cells.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Entosis, a cell-in-cell process, has been implicated in the formation of aneuploidy associated with an aberrant cell division control. Microtubule plus-end-tracking protein TIP150 facilitates the loading of MCAK onto the microtubule plus ends and orchestrates microtubule plus-end dynamics during cell division. Here we show that TIP150 cooperates with MCAK to govern entosis via a regulatory circuitry that involves Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of MCAK. Our biochemical analyses show that MCAK forms an intra-molecular association, which is essential for TIP150 binding. Interestingly, Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of MCAK modulates its intra-molecular association, which perturbs the MCAK-TIP150 interaction in vitro and inhibits entosis in vivo. To probe if MCAK-TIP150 interaction regulates microtubule plasticity to affect the mechanical properties of cells during entosis, we used an optical trap to measure the mechanical rigidity of live MCF7 cells. We find that the MCAK cooperates with TIP150 to promote microtubule dynamics and modulate the mechanical rigidity of the cells during entosis. Our results show that a dynamic interaction of MCAK-TIP150 orchestrated by Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation governs entosis via regulating microtubule plus-end dynamics and cell rigidity. These data reveal a previously unknown mechanism of Aurora A regulation in the control of microtubule plasticity during cell-in-cell processes.
    Journal of molecular cell biology. 05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Accurate and efficient separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is critical for faithful cell division. It has been proposed that cortical dynein-generated pulling forces on astral microtubules contribute to anaphase spindle elongation and chromosome separation. In mammalian cells, however, definitive evidence for the involvement of cortical dynein in chromosome separation is still missing. Dynein is thought to be recruited and anchored at the cell cortex during mitosis by the Gα/LGN/NuMA ternary complex. Here we uncover a Gα/LGN-independent lipid- and membrane-binding domain at the C terminus of NuMA. We show that the membrane binding of NuMA is cell cycle-regulated-it is inhibited during prophase and metaphase by CDK1-mediated phosphorylation, and only occurs after anaphase onset when CDK1 activity is down-regulated. Further studies indicate that cell cycle-regulated membrane association of NuMA underlies anaphase-specific enhancement of cortical NuMA and dynein. By replacing endogenous NuMA with a membrane-binding deficient NuMA, we can specifically reduce the cortical accumulation of NuMA and dynein during anaphase and demonstrate that cortical NuMA and dynein contribute to efficient chromosome separation in mammalian cells.
    Molecular biology of the cell 12/2013; · 5.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressors Discs Large (Dlg), Lethal giant larvae (Lgl) and Scribble are essential for the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity in metazoan. Dlg, Lgl and Scribble are known to interact strongly with each other genetically and form the evolutionarily conserved Scribble complex. Despite more than a decade of extensive research, it has not been demonstrated whether Dlg, Lgl and Scribble physically interact with each other. Here, we show that Dlg directly interacts with Lgl in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of any one of the three conserved Ser residues situated in the central linker region of Lgl is sufficient for its binding to the Dlg guanylate kinase (GK) domain. The crystal structures of the Dlg4 GK domain in complex with two phosphor-Lgl2 peptides reveal the molecular mechanism underlying the specific and phosphorylation-dependent Dlg/Lgl complex formation. In addition to providing a mechanistic basis underlying the regulated formation of the Scribble complex, the structure of the Dlg/Lgl complex may also serve as a starting point for designing specific Dlg inhibitors for targeting the Scribble complex formation.Cell Research advance online publication 11 February 2014; doi:10.1038/cr.2014.16.
    Cell Research 02/2014; · 10.53 Impact Factor


Available from