Lack of impact of pulse pressure on outcomes in patients with malignant phase hypertension: the West Birmingham Malignant Hypertension study.
ABSTRACT To investigate the impact of pulse pressure at presentation on the primary outcome (death or dialysis) in patients with malignant phase hypertension (MPH).
Three hundred and sixty-five patients [overall mean (SD) age 48 (13) years; 66% male; 63% white European; 23% African-Caribbean, 14% south Asian] from the West Birmingham MPH study were included. Baseline pulse pressure was divided into quartiles. Two hundred and forty-two primary outcomes (death or dialysis) occurred during a median (interquartile range) follow-up of 7 (1.5-14.8) years.
Significantly higher pulse pressure was evident among older patients and white Europeans. Baseline BMI (P = 0.49), retinopathy (P = 0.56), proteinuria (P = 0.61), haematuria (P = 0.56) and left ventricular hypertrophy (P = 0.43) were not related to pulse pressure. Multivariate analyses found that baseline age [hazard ratio (95% confidence intervals] [1.05 (1.04-1.06); P < 0.0001], smoking [1.60 (1.16-2.21); P = 0.004], proteinuria [1.33 (1.10-1.61); P = 0.003] and creatinine level [1.002 (1.001-1.002); P < 0.0001] were independent predictors of the primary outcome of 'death or dialysis'. A multivariate analysis also revealed that independent predictors of future dialysis alone were as follows: baseline age [0.92 (0.89-0.95); P < 0.001) and haematuria [2.74 (1.17-6.42); P = 0.02), with a trend seen for baseline creatinine levels [1.001 (1.000-1.002); P = 0.052)]. Pulse pressure at baseline did not predict death or dialysis.
Age, smoking status and severity of renal failure at presentation with MPH (represented by proteinuria and creatinine levels) are independent predictors of the risk of death or dialysis. Pulse pressure at presentation does not predict death or dialysis in patients with MPH. Careful monitoring of renal functioning and effective management of blood pressure is mandatory in patients with MPH to prevent/slow future complications.
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ABSTRACT: To document the clinical presentation of malignant accelerated hypertension in Nigerians, 56 patients were studied between 1987 and 1989 (30 months). Age range was 16 to 55 years with 59% in the range of 30-49 years; 47 were male. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 217 mmHg and 146 mmHg, respectively. Thirty patients had grade III and 26 grade IV hypertensive retinopathy. Mean body mass index was only 22.4 in the 21 patients who had no evidence of fluid retention. Seventy-five percent of patients had no awareness of hypertension. Essential hypertension accounted for 66%, chronic renal disease 32% and renal artery stenosis 2% of cases. The most common clinical features were headaches (80%), fatigue (68%), oliguria (52%), heart failure (46%), weight loss (41%), and poor vision (21%). Multiple symptoms were common and 24 patients had both renal and cardiac failure. Laboratory features included microscopic haematuria (100%) and proteinuria (100%). In 37 patients with essential hypertension, renal failure was a complication in 60%. Microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia was present in 23 patients. In addition to eight deaths from renal failure in the acute stage, 23 of these patients required long-term dialysis. Thus, malignant accelerated hypertension was associated with high morbidity, especially renal failure; it primarily afflicted patients in their prime years. Known survival at one year was 37.5%, but some patients were lost to follow-up.Journal of Human Hypertension 09/1991; 5(4):339-43. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The widespread use of antihypertensive medication and the increasing frequency of diagnosis of mild-to-moderate hypertension should mean that malignant-phase hypertension should be becoming less common, and this trend has been reported elsewhere. No decline in the incidence of malignant hypertension has been apparent in our practice in a district general hospital in a city centre. To investigate the incidence and mode of clinical presentation of patients presenting with malignant hypertension, we performed a retrospective survey of the number of patients presenting with malignant hypertension to our hospital, over the 24-year period from 1970 to 1993. We identified a total of 242 patients (155 male, 87 female; mean +/- SD age 50.1 +/- 13.3 years) with malignant hypertension. There were no significant differences in the number of patients presenting each year, the mean age or the presenting systolic and diastolic blood pressures over the period surveyed. At presentation, 131 patients (54.1%) had no previous history of hypertension; 161 (66.5%) were receiving no antihypertensive therapy and only 70 (28.9%) were receiving antihypertensive treatment (with no record of therapy in 11 patients). The most common presenting symptoms included visual disturbance in 62 (25.6%), headaches in 29 (12.0%), headaches and visual disturbance in 24 (9.9%), heart failure in 19 (7.9%), stroke or transient ischaemic attack in 17 (7.0%) and dyspnoea in 13 (5.4%), although 23 patients (9.5%) were asymptomatic. The most common presenting complications were heart failure [27 patients (11.1%)], stroke [23 patients (9.5%)], angina [10 patients (4.1%)], myocardial infarction [nine patients (3.7%)] and chronic renal failure [77 patients (31.7%)]. In the whole group the majority (147 patients, 60.5%) had no complicating clinical features. Primary or essential hypertension was the most common underlying cause in 137 patients (56.4%). Secondary causes of hypertension (mainly renal disease) were identified in 97 patients (39.9%). Our experience suggests that malignant hypertension is still common, with a small proportion of hypertensives presenting each year. In particular, the incidence has failed to decline in Birmingham. The incidence rate in the population served by our hospital is approximately 1-2 cases per 100,000 per year. An awareness of the different presenting clinical features is required to allow better recognition and management of this life-threatening condition.Journal of Hypertension 12/1994; 12(11):1297-305. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malignant hypertension is a renin-dependent form of hypertension. However, the variations in renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation in malignant hypertension are not completely understood. A proposed mechanism for ongoing RAS activation is the presence of microangiopathic hemolysis resulting in renovascular ischemia. We prospectively examined the association between plasma renin activity (PRA), microangiopathic hemolysis, and renal dysfunction in 30 consecutive patients with malignant hypertension (n=18) and severe hypertension (n=12). The PRA and aldosterone were measured in the supine position and before initiating therapy. The PRA was 8.8 ng angiotensin I (AI)/mL/h (interquartile range [IQR] 4.8-20) in malignant hypertensive patients and 2.8 ng AI/mL/h (IQR 0.6-6.3) in patients with severe hypertension (P<.01). Aldosterone was 1.30+/-1.02 nmol/L in patients with malignant hypertension compared with 0.44+/-0.37 nmol/L in those with severe hypertension (P<.01). In malignant hypertension, PRA highly correlated with lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) (r=0.76, P<.001), meaning that 58% of the variations in PRA could be explained by LDH. The PRA positively correlated with serum creatinine values at presentation (r=0.50, P=.007), but adjustment for LDH abolished the effect of PRA on creatinine (P=.24). The PRA and aldosterone were markedly elevated in patients with malignant hypertension but not in severely hypertensive patients despite small differences in blood pressure (BP). The strong logarithmic correlation between PRA, microangiopathic markers, and renal dysfunction suggests a renin-mediated acceleration of vascular damage and renal dysfunction in patients with malignant hypertension.American Journal of Hypertension 08/2007; 20(8):900-6. · 3.67 Impact Factor