RAC1 GTPase plays an important role in γ-irradiation induced G2/M checkpoint activation.
ABSTRACT In response to gamma-irradiation (IR)-induced double-strand DNA breaks, cells undergo cell-cycle arrest, allowing time for DNA repair before reentering the cell cycle. G2/M checkpoint activation involves activation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/ATM- and rad3-related (ATR) kinases and inhibition of Cdc25 phosphatases, resulting in inhibition of Cdc2 kinase and subsequent G2/M cell-cycle arrest. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that the G2/M checkpoint activation after IR exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells is dependent on the activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) signaling. In the present studies, we investigated the role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) in IR-induced G2/M checkpoint response and ERK1/2 activation, as well as in cell survival after IR.
With Rac1-specific inhibitor, dominant negative mutant Rac1 (N17Rac1) and specific small interfering RNA, the effect of Rac1 on IR-induced G2/M checkpoint response and ERK1/2 activation was examined in human breast cancer cells. In addition, the effect of Rac1 on cell survival after irradiation was assessed by using Rac1-specific inhibitor.
IR exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells was associated with a marked activation of Rac1 GTPase. Furthermore, inhibition of Rac1 by using specific inhibitor, dominant-negative Rac1 mutant, or specific siRNA resulted in attenuation of IR-induced G2/M arrest and concomitant diminution of IR-induced activation of ATM, ATR, Chk1, and Chk2 kinases, as well as phosphorylation of Cdc2-Tyr15. Moreover, Rac1 inhibition or decreased Rac1 expression also abrogated IR-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 and 2 (MEK1/2) and ERK1/2. Ultimately, inhibition of Rac1 markedly increased cellular sensitivity to IR exposure, which involves induction of apoptosis.
Studies in this report suggest that Rac1 GTPase plays an essential role in the activation of IR-induced ERK1/2 signaling and subsequent G2/M checkpoint response. Furthermore, results also support a role for Rac1 in promoting cell survival after irradiation treatment.
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ABSTRACT: wee1 acts antagonistically to cdc25 in the tyrosine dephosphorylation and activation of cdc2, yet biochemical evidence suggests that wee1 is not required for tyrosine phosphorylation and its role is obscure. We show here that a related 66 kd kinase, called mik1, acts redundantly with wee1 in the negative regulation of cdc2 in S. pombe. A null allele of mik1 has no discernible phenotype, but a mik1 wee1 double mutant is hypermitotically lethal: all normal M phase checkpoints are bypassed, including the requirement for initiation of cell cycle "start," completion of S phase, and function of the cdc25+ mitotic activator. In the absence of mik1 and wee1 activity, cdc2 rapidly loses phosphate on tyrosine, both in strains undergoing mitotic lethality and in those that are viable owing to a compensating mutation within cdc2. The data suggest that mik1 and wee1 act cooperatively on cdc2, either directly as the inhibitory tyrosine kinase or as essential activators of that kinase.Cell 04/1991; 64(6):1111-22. · 32.40 Impact Factor