An overview of the mTOR pathway as a target in cancer therapy.
ABSTRACT Introduction: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade is a key regulatory pathway controlling initiation of mRNA translation in mammalian cells. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and its derivatives have shown potent antineoplastic activities in many preclinical models and clinical trials. First-generation mTOR inhibitors are now FDA-approved for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Areas covered: This article reviews the components of the mTOR pathway and their normal functions, highlighting the most common alterations in the pathway, seen in various human malignancies. It also discusses elements and effectors of this signaling cascade and reviews the therapeutic relevance of pharmacological inhibitors of the pathway in several malignancies, including lymphomas, leukemias, sarcomas, renal cell carcinoma, and breast cancer. Expert opinion: mTOR targeting is a highly promising therapeutic approach. First-generation mTOR inhibitors have already shown substantial activity in the treatment of certain tumors, while the emergence of second-generation catalytic mTOR inhibitors provides a better approach to target the pathway in malignant cells and has raised the potential for better clinical outcomes in the future.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: mTOR is a central nutrient sensor that signals a cell to grow and proliferate. Through distinct protein complexes it regulates different levels of available cellular energy substrates required for cell growth. One of the important functions of the complex is to maintain available amino acid pool by regulating protein translation. Dysregulation of mTOR pathway leads to aberrant protein translation which manifests into various pathological states. Our review focuses on the role mTOR signaling plays in protein translation and its physiological role. It also throws some light on available data that show translation dysregulation as a cause of pathological complexities like cancer and the available drugs that target the pathway for cancer treatment.01/2014; 2014:686984. DOI:10.1155/2014/686984
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is a heterogeneous neoplastic disorder of immature hematopoietic precursors committed to the T-cell lineage. T-ALL comprises about 15% of pediatric and 25% of adult ALL cases. Even if the prognosis of T-ALL has improved especially in the childhood due to the use of new intensified treatment protocols, the outcome of relapsed patients who are resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs or who relapse is still poor. For this reason, there is a need for novel and less toxic targeted therapies against signaling pathways aberrantly activated in T-ALL, such as the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Small molecules designed to target key components of this signaling axis have proven their efficacy both in vitro and in vivo in pre-clinical settings of T-ALL. In particular, different classes of mTOR inhibitors have been disclosed by pharmaceutical companies, and they are currently being tested in clinical trials for treating T-ALL patients. One of the most promising approaches for the treatment of T-ALL seems to be the combination of mTOR inhibitors with traditional chemotherapeutic agents. This could lead to a lower drug dosage that may circumvent the systemic side effects of chemotherapeutics. In this review, we focus on the different classes of mTOR inhibitors that will possibly have an impact on the therapeutic arsenal we have at our disposal against T-ALL.International Journal of Oncology 06/2014; 45(3). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2014.2525 · 2.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) is heterogeneous in its pathology and clinical behaviour. Evaluation of prognostic and predictive biomarkers is necessary, in order to produce personalised treatment options. The present study used immunohistochemistry to evaluate UBC sections containing tumour and non-tumour areas from 76 patients, for the detection of p-mTOR, CD31 and D2-40 (blood and lymphatic vessels identification, respectively). Of the non-tumour and tumour sections, 36 and 20% were scored positive for p-mTOR expression, respectively. Immunoexpression was observed in umbrella cells from non-tumour urothelium, in all cell layers from non-muscle-invasive (NMI) tumours (including expression in superficial cells), and in spots of cells from muscle-invasive (MI) tumours. Positive expression decreased from non-tumour to tumour urothelium, and from pT1/pTis to pT3/pT4 tumours; however, the few pT3/pT4 positive cases had worse survival rates, with 5-year disease-free survival being significantly lower. Angiogenesis occurrence was impaired in pT3/pT4 tumours that did not express p-mTOR. In conclusion, p-mTOR expression in non-tumour umbrella cells is likely a reflection of their metabolic plasticity, and extension to the inner layers of the urothelium in NMI tumours is consistent with an enhanced malignant potential. The expression in cell spots in a few MI tumours and absence of expression in the remaining tumours is intriguing and requires further research. Additional studies regarding the up- and downstream effectors of the mTOR pathway should be conducted.Oncology letters 10/2014; 8(4):1447-1454. DOI:10.3892/ol.2014.2392 · 0.99 Impact Factor