Recent overview of ocular patents.
ABSTRACT Ocular drug therapy has always been considered as a major challenge in the field of drug delivery. The presence of blood ocular barriers and efflux pumps has imposed a great concern as well. Various vision threatening disorders require a long term therapy of drug molecules, especially for the diseases that affect the posterior segment. Pharmaceutical companies and other research institutes have adopted a multidisciplinary approach to meet the current challenges which is evidenced by the trends seen in the published and filed U.S. patents. Various strategies have been employed to achieve long term sustained and targeted delivery for both the anterior and the posterior segments of the ocular diseases. These strategies include formulating drugs into implant, micro or nanoparticulate systems and hydrogel-based systems. Transporter targeted approach has also allowed scientists to deliver drugs to both the segments of the eye. Recent developments such as delivery of drugs utilizing ultrasound, iontophoresis and microneedle based devices have been promising. Genebased therapeutics has opened a new avenue for vision threatening disorders. In all, the current developments in the entire field have been very exciting for finding out new strategies to treat vision threatening disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To characterize nanoparticles produced by self-assembly of oppositely charged polymers, cationic chitosan (CS), and anionic dextran sulfate (DS), for drug delivery to the ocular surface. The goal is to overcome the short residence time of topical drugs through their sustained release from mucoadhesive nanoparticles. Methods: Chitosan-dextran sulfate nanoparticles (CDNs) were produced by mixing CS and DS; polyethylene glycol-400 was used as a surface stabilizing agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of CS, DS, and CDNs were determined in the wavenumber range of 4,000-700 cm(-1) to assess the ionic interactions in the formation of CDNs. The physicochemical properties, entrapment efficacy, and dissolution profile of CDNs were investigated using Rhodamine B (RhB) and Nile Red (NR) as drug analogs. The mucoadhesiveness of the CDNs was assessed by imaging the retention of the fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled CDNs on the cornea ex vivo, which was subjected to shear stress by a steady stream of saline solution. Results: CDNs were obtained by the polyelectrolyte complexation technique. The FTIR spectra of CDNs showed spectral shifts in the amine and sulfate regions, confirming an involvement of electrostatic interactions between cationic CS and anionic DS. The CDNs were spherical in shape and segregated. They possessed a particle size of ∼400 nm with a polydispersity index of 0.3 and exhibited a zeta potential of ∼40 mV. A high entrapment efficacy of up to 80% was observed with both RhB and NR. In the dissolution experiments, NR was released from CDNs within 60 min, but RhB was not released. This indicates that the release of drugs could depend on their molecular interactions with the particle. Exposure of CDNs to lysozyme, which is found in tears, had no effect on the mean particle size or the surface charge. Instillation of NR, RhB, and FITC in the presence of saline irrigation resulted in their rapid disappearance (<5 min) from the corneal surface. In contrast, fluorescent CDNs showed retention on the cornea even after 60 min. Conclusions: Cationic and biocompatible mucoadhesive CDNs have been developed for sustained drug delivery to the ocular surface. The CDNs were stable to lysozyme and showed prolonged adherence to the corneal surface.Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics: the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics 01/2013; · 1.46 Impact Factor