Correlations of urinary phytoestrogen excretion with lifestyle factors and dietary intakes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women

Division of Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA.
International Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Genetics (Impact Factor: 1.3). 01/2012; 3(1):18-29.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Isoflavones and lignans, two major groups of phytoestrogens, have been postulated to have multiple health benefits, including anti-estrogenic, anti-cancer, pro-cardiovascular health, and ameliorating menopausal symptoms. Urinary excretion of isoflavonoids, including daidzein, genistein, glycitein, O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA), dihydro-daidzein, dihydrogenistein, and equol, and lignans, including enterodiol and enterolactone, have been used as biomarkers of phytoestrogen exposure in epidemiologic studies. We evaluated the urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and their correlations with lifestyle and dietary factors among 2,165 women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), a population-based prospective cohort study of 74,942 urban Chinese women aged 40-70 years at study enrollment (1996-2000). The medians (in nmol/mg creatinine) were: isoflavonoids, 17.13; daidzein, 5.57; genistein, 2.41; glycitein, 0.94; O-DMA, 1.52; dihydrodaidzein, 0.81; dihydrogenistein, 0.19; equol, 0.11; enterodiol, 0.30; and enterolactone, 1.18. These levels are 2- (enterodiol) to 126- (O-DMA) fold higher than levels among US women similar in age range with the exception of enterolactone, for which a similar level was observed for both populations. Urinary isoflavonoid excretion was higher among older women and women who engaged in regular exercise and significantly associated with soy food intake, but was inversely related to fruit intake. Urinary excretions of dihydrodaidzein, dihydrogenistein, equol, enterodiol, and enterolactone were inversely associated with body mass index (BMI). Urinary excretion of isoflavones correlated with soy food intake and healthy lifestyle but was inversely associated with fruit intake among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. Our study adds important information to the rapidly growing body of research on the potential health benefits of phytoestrogens.

Download full-text


Available from: qi Dai, Sep 26, 2015
21 Reads
  • Source
    • "In middle-aged and elderly Chinese women, it was reported that urinary excretion of isoflavones was correlated with soy food intake and healthy lifestyle (e.g., regular exercise) but was inversely associated with fruit intake [25]. Also, Wu and colleagues' study showed that urinary dihydrodaidzein, equol, dihydrogenistein, and the metabolites of daidzein and genistein had a significantly negative correlation with BMI [25]. The metabolization of daidzein occurs in the gut through the action of a particular class of bacteria Clostridium sp, Eubacterium ramulus, Bacteroides ovatus, Bifidobacterium breve, etc [36]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that natural agents such as isoflavones, resveratrol, and anthocyanin have beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome-related disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate dietary isoflavone intake, urinary isoflavone level, and their relationship with the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Korean postmenopausal women. The subjects included 46 MetS and 60 controls. The MetS risk score was determined by adding the number of risk factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) and levels of triglyceride (TG), HDL-cholesterol, and glucose. Dietary isoflavone intake was not significantly different between the MetS and control groups; however, the urinary daidzein level was significantly higher in the MetS subjects compared to that of the controls. Subjects with high TG had higher urinary daidzein and isoflavone (daidzein + genistein) levels than those without such abnormalities. But, the MetS risk score showed no significant correlation with urinary daidzein, genistein, and isoflavone excretions.
    01/2013; 2(1):59-66. DOI:10.7762/cnr.2013.2.1.59
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Some evidence suggests that phytoestrogens, such as soy-derived isoflavones, may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health and glycemic control. These data are mainly limited to postmenopausal women or individuals at elevated cardiometabolic risk. There is a lack of data for pregnant women who have elevated estrogen levels and physiologically altered glucose and lipid metabolism. We analyzed data from 299 pregnant women who participated in the NHANES 2001-2008 surveys. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between urinary concentrations of isoflavonoids and cardiometabolic risk markers, adjusted for body mass index, pregnancy trimester, total energy intake, dietary intake of protein, fiber, and cholesterol, and demographic and lifestyle factors. Cardiometabolic risk markers were log-transformed, and geometric means were calculated by quartiles of urinary concentrations of isoflavonoids. Comparing women in the highest vs. lowest quartiles of urine total isoflavone concentrations, we observed significant, inverse associations with circulating concentrations of fasting glucose (79 vs. 88 mg/dL, P-trend = 0.0009), insulin (8.2 vs. 12.8 μU/mL, P-trend = 0.03), and triglyceride (156 vs. 185 mg/dL, P-trend = 0.02), and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (1.6 vs. 2.8, P-trend = 0.01), but not for total, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The concentrations of individual isoflavonoids, daidzein, equol, and O-desmethylangolensin were inversely associated with some cardiometabolic risk markers, although no clear pattern emerged. These data suggest that there may be a relation between isoflavone intake and cardiometabolic risk markers in pregnant women.
    Journal of Nutrition 12/2013; 144(3). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.184069 · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become a major public health threat across the globe. It has been widely acknowledged that diet plays an important role in the development and management of T2D. Phytoestrogens are polyphenols that are structurally similar to endogenous estrogen and have weak estrogenic properties. Emerging evidence from pre-clinical models has suggested that phytoestrogens may have anti-diabetic function via both estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent pathways. In the current review, we have summarized the evidence linking two major types of phytoestrogens, isoflavones and lignans, and T2D from epidemiological studies and clinical trials. The cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies have reported inconsistent results, which may due to the large variations in different populations and measurement errors in dietary intakes. Long-term intervention studies using isoflavone supplements have reported potential beneficial effects on glycemic parameters in postmenopausal women, while results from short-term small-size clinical trials are conflicting. Taken together, the current evidence from different study designs is complex and inconsistent. Although the widespread use of phytoestrogens could not be recommended yet, habitual consumption of phytoestrogens, particularly their intact food sources like soy and whole flaxseed, could be considered as a component of overall healthy dietary pattern for prevention and management of T2D.
    03/2015; 6(2):271-83. DOI:10.4239/wjd.v6.i2.271