Data sharing in neuroimaging research

Neurospin, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
Frontiers in Neuroinformatics 04/2012; 6:9. DOI: 10.3389/fninf.2012.00009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Significant resources around the world have been invested in neuroimaging studies of brain function and disease. Easier access to this large body of work should have profound impact on research in cognitive neuroscience and psychiatry, leading to advances in the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric and neurological disease. A trend toward increased sharing of neuroimaging data has emerged in recent years. Nevertheless, a number of barriers continue to impede momentum. Many researchers and institutions remain uncertain about how to share data or lack the tools and expertise to participate in data sharing. The use of electronic data capture (EDC) methods for neuroimaging greatly simplifies the task of data collection and has the potential to help standardize many aspects of data sharing. We review here the motivations for sharing neuroimaging data, the current data sharing landscape, and the sociological or technical barriers that still need to be addressed. The INCF Task Force on Neuroimaging Datasharing, in conjunction with several collaborative groups around the world, has started work on several tools to ease and eventually automate the practice of data sharing. It is hoped that such tools will allow researchers to easily share raw, processed, and derived neuroimaging data, with appropriate metadata and provenance records, and will improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging studies. By providing seamless integration of data sharing and analysis tools within a commodity research environment, the Task Force seeks to identify and minimize barriers to data sharing in the field of neuroimaging.

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    ABSTRACT: Efforts to expand sharing of neuroimaging data have been growing exponentially in recent years. There are several different types of data sharing which can be considered to fall along a spectrum, ranging from simpler and less informative to more complex and more informative. In this paper we consider this spectrum for three domains: data capture, data density, and data analysis. Here the focus is on the right end of the spectrum, that is, how to maximize the information content while addressing the challenges. A summary of associated challenges of and possible solutions is presented in this review and includes: 1) a discussion of tools to monitor quality of data as it is collected and encourage adoption of data mapping standards; 2) sharing of time-series data (not just summary maps or regions); and 3) the use of analytic approaches which maximize sharing potential as much as possible. Examples of existing solutions for each of these points, which we developed in our lab, are also discussed including the use of a comprehensive beginning-to-end neuroinformatics platform and the use of flexible analytic approaches, such as independent component analysis and multivariate classification approaches, such as deep learning.
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    ABSTRACT: Published studies using functional and structural MRI include many errors in the way data are analyzed and conclusions reported. This was observed when working on a comprehensive review of the neural bases of synesthesia, but these errors are probably endemic to neuroimaging studies. All studies reviewed had based their conclusions using Null Hypothesis Significance Tests (NHST). NHST have yet been criticized since their inception because they are more appropriate for taking decisions related to a Null hypothesis (like in manufacturing) than for making inferences about behavioral and neuronal processes. Here I focus on a few key problems of NHST related to brain imaging techniques, and explain why or when we should not rely on "significance" tests. I also observed that, often, the ill-posed logic of NHST was even not correctly applied, and describe what I identified as common mistakes or at least problematic practices in published papers, in light of what could be considered as the very basics of statistical inference. MRI statistics also involve much more complex issues than standard statistical inference. Analysis pipelines vary a lot between studies, even for those using the same software, and there is no consensus which pipeline is the best. I propose a synthetic view of the logic behind the possible methodological choices, and warn against the usage and interpretation of two statistical methods popular in brain imaging studies, the false discovery rate (FDR) procedure and permutation tests. I suggest that current models for the analysis of brain imaging data suffer from serious limitations and call for a revision taking into account the "new statistics" (confidence intervals) logic.
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    ABSTRACT: In the last decade, major advances have been made in the availability of shared neuroimaging data, such that there are more than 8,000 shared MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) data sets available online. Here we outline the state of data sharing for task-based functional MRI (fMRI) data, with a focus on various forms of data and their relative utility for subsequent analyses. We also discuss challenges to the future success of data sharing and highlight the ethical argument that data sharing may be necessary to maximize the contribution of human subjects.
    Nature Neuroscience 10/2014; 17(11-11):1510-1517. DOI:10.1038/nn.3818 · 14.98 Impact Factor

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