Reduction of tumorigenicity by placental extracts.
ABSTRACT The influence of adult stem cells on tumor growth is paradoxical. On one hand, angiogenic factors secreted by stem cells are known to be essential for tumor vascularization. On the other hand, stem cell-derived factors can reportedly induce tumor differentiation or direct death of tumor cells. Both the placenta and umbilical cord are rich sources of stem cells with immune modulatory and tissue-healing properties; however, the effects of placental components on cancer cells have not been fully defined. Here we demonstrate that extracts of placental lysates reduce the malignancy of a variety of human tumor cell lines in a species-unrestricted manner. Using a standard model of leukemia cell differentiation, we demonstrated that addition of placental extracts to tumor cells, or co-culture of tumor cells with the CD34(+) cells from umbilical cord blood, induced tumor cell differentiation. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in vivo was also observed following administration of placental extracts. These data support the concept of non-toxic biological therapy of cancer using stem cell derivatives, possibly through the induction of tumor cell differentiation.
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ABSTRACT: Placental extracts have been reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Because there is increasing evidence that ionizing radiation induces the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines, we examined the protective effects of a placental extract against radiation injury. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 1 Gy of γ-ray radiation every day for 5 days, and placental extract (1 mg/day) was administrated orally soon after each exposure. At 2 days after the last irradiation, mice were euthanized to examine the numbers, colony-forming capacity, and DNA damage of stem/progenitor cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow. To understand the related mechanisms, we also measured the levels of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS, and 8-OHdG in the plasma and urine, and IL-6 and TNF-α in the plasma. Compared with the placebo treatment, oral administration of placental extract significantly increased the number and colony-forming capacity, but decreased the DNA damage of bone marrow stem/progenitor cells. However, neither the levels of intracellular and mitochondrial ROS in bone marrow cells, nor the levels of 8-OHdG in the urine and plasma significantly differed between groups. Interestingly, in comparison with the placebo treatment, placental extract significantly decreased the levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in the plasma. Placental extract significantly attenuated the acute radiation injury to bone marrow-derived stem/progenitor cells, and this protection is likely to be related to the anti-inflammatory activity of the placental extract.Journal of Radiation Research 11/2012; · 1.45 Impact Factor