Structure of Shroom domain 2 reveals a three-segmented coiled-coil required for dimerization, Rock binding, and apical constriction

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
Molecular biology of the cell (Impact Factor: 4.47). 04/2012; 23(11):2131-42. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E11-11-0937
Source: PubMed


Shroom (Shrm) proteins are essential regulators of cell shape and tissue morpho-logy during animal development that function by interacting directly with the coiled-coil region of Rho kinase (Rock). The Shrm-Rock interaction is sufficient to direct Rock subcellular localization and the subsequent assembly of contractile actomyosin networks in defined subcellular locales. However, it is unclear how the Shrm-Rock interaction is regulated at the molecular level. To begin investigating this issue, we present the structure of Shrm domain 2 (SD2), which mediates the interaction with Rock and is required for Shrm function. SD2 is a unique three-segmented dimer with internal symmetry, and we identify conserved residues on the surface and within the dimerization interface that are required for the Rock-Shrm interaction and Shrm activity in vivo. We further show that these residues are critical in both vertebrate and invertebrate Shroom proteins, indicating that the Shrm-Rock signaling module has been functionally and molecularly conserved. The structure and biochemical analysis of Shrm SD2 indicate that it is distinct from other Rock activators such as RhoA and establishes a new paradigm for the Rock-mediated assembly of contractile actomyosin networks.

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    • "Shroom proteins bind directly to and recruit Rock to specific subcellular locales to regulate cell morphology and behavior (Dietz et al., 2006; Nishimura and Takeichi, 2008; Farber et al., 2011; Mohan et al., 2012). Based on the above data showing that Shroom3 variants R1838A and R1838C fail to bind Rock, we predicted that these mutants would also fail to recruit Rock to specific subcellular locales in vivo. "
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    ABSTRACT: Shroom3 is an actin-associated regulator of cell morphology that is required for neural tube closure, formation of the lens placode, and gut morphogenesis in mice and has been linked to chronic kidney disease and directional heart looping in humans. Numerous studies have shown that Shroom3 likely regulates these developmental processes by directly binding to Rho-kinase and facilitating the assembly of apically positioned contractile actomyosin networks. We have characterized the molecular basis for the neural tube defects caused by an ENU-induced mutation that results in an arginine-to-cysteine amino acid substitution at position 1838 of mouse Shroom3. We show that this substitution has no effect on Shroom3 expression or localization but ablates Rock binding and renders Shroom3 non-functional for the ability to regulate cell morphology. Our results indicate that Rock is the major downstream effector of Shroom3 in the process of neural tube morphogenesis. Based on sequence conservation and biochemical analysis, we predict that the Shroom-Rock interaction is highly conserved across animal evolution and represents a signaling module that is utilized in a variety of biological processes.
    Biology Open 08/2014; 3(9). DOI:10.1242/bio.20147450 · 2.42 Impact Factor
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    • "Multiple lines of investigation, including biochemical, structural, and cellular analysis, have characterized and demonstrated the importance of the Shrm-Rock interaction in the regulation of cytoskeletal organization, cell shape, and tissue morphogenesis [5], [8]–[10], [37], [42]. Within Shrm, this interaction is mediated by a highly conserved Shrm-domain 2 (SD2) found at the C-termini of all Shrm proteins identified to date [35], [37], [42], [44]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Rho-associated coiled coil containing protein kinase (Rho-kinase or Rock) is a well-defined determinant of actin organization and dynamics in most animal cells characterized to date. One of the primary effectors of Rock is non-muscle myosin II. Activation of Rock results in increased contractility of myosin II and subsequent changes in actin architecture and cell morphology. The regulation of Rock is thought to occur via autoinhibition of the kinase domain via intramolecular interactions between the N-terminus and the C-terminus of the kinase. This autoinhibited state can be relieved via proteolytic cleavage, binding of lipids to a Pleckstrin Homology domain near the C-terminus, or binding of GTP-bound RhoA to the central coiled-coil region of Rock. Recent work has identified the Shroom family of proteins as an additional regulator of Rock either at the level of cellular distribution or catalytic activity or both. The Shroom-Rock complex is conserved in most animals and is essential for the formation of the neural tube, eye, and gut in vertebrates. To address the mechanism by which Shroom and Rock interact, we have solved the structure of the coiled-coil region of Rock that binds to Shroom proteins. Consistent with other observations, the Shroom binding domain is a parallel coiled-coil dimer. Using biochemical approaches, we have identified a large patch of residues that contribute to Shrm binding. Their orientation suggests that there may be two independent Shrm binding sites on opposing faces of the coiled-coil region of Rock. Finally, we show that the binding surface is essential for Rock colocalization with Shroom and for Shroom-mediated changes in cell morphology.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e81075. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0081075 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Rho-associated (ROCK) serine/threonine kinases have emerged as central regulators of the actomyosin cytoskeleton, their main purpose being to promote contractile force generation. Aided by the discovery of effective inhibitors such as Y27632, their roles in cancer have been extensively explored with particular attention focused on motility, invasion and metastasis. Recent studies have revealed a surprisingly diverse range of functions of ROCK. These insights could change the way ROCK inhibitors might be used in cancer therapy to include the targeting of stromal rather than tumour cells, the concomitant blocking of ROCK and proteasome activity in K-Ras-driven lung cancers and the combination of ROCK with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for treating haematological malignancies such as chronic myeloid leukaemia. Despite initial optimism for therapeutic efficacy of ROCK inhibition for cancer treatment, no compounds have progressed into standard therapy so far. However, by carefully defining the key cancer types and expanding the appreciation of ROCK's role in cancer beyond being a cell-autonomous promoter of tumour cell invasion and metastasis, the early promise of ROCK inhibitors for cancer therapy might still be realized.
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