Structure of Shroom domain 2 reveals a three-segmented coiled-coil required for dimerization, Rock binding, and apical constriction.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
Molecular biology of the cell (Impact Factor: 5.98). 04/2012; 23(11):2131-42. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E11-11-0937
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Shroom (Shrm) proteins are essential regulators of cell shape and tissue morpho-logy during animal development that function by interacting directly with the coiled-coil region of Rho kinase (Rock). The Shrm-Rock interaction is sufficient to direct Rock subcellular localization and the subsequent assembly of contractile actomyosin networks in defined subcellular locales. However, it is unclear how the Shrm-Rock interaction is regulated at the molecular level. To begin investigating this issue, we present the structure of Shrm domain 2 (SD2), which mediates the interaction with Rock and is required for Shrm function. SD2 is a unique three-segmented dimer with internal symmetry, and we identify conserved residues on the surface and within the dimerization interface that are required for the Rock-Shrm interaction and Shrm activity in vivo. We further show that these residues are critical in both vertebrate and invertebrate Shroom proteins, indicating that the Shrm-Rock signaling module has been functionally and molecularly conserved. The structure and biochemical analysis of Shrm SD2 indicate that it is distinct from other Rock activators such as RhoA and establishes a new paradigm for the Rock-mediated assembly of contractile actomyosin networks.

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    ABSTRACT: Shroom3 is an actin-associated regulator of cell morphology that is required for neural tube closure, formation of the lens placode, and gut morphogenesis in mice and has been linked to chronic kidney disease and directional heart looping in humans. Numerous studies have shown that Shroom3 likely regulates these developmental processes by directly binding to Rho-kinase and facilitating the assembly of apically positioned contractile actomyosin networks. We have characterized the molecular basis for the neural tube defects caused by an ENU-induced mutation that results in an arginine-to-cysteine amino acid substitution at position 1838 of mouse Shroom3. We show that this substitution has no effect on Shroom3 expression or localization but ablates Rock binding and renders Shroom3 non-functional for the ability to regulate cell morphology. Our results indicate that Rock is the major downstream effector of Shroom3 in the process of neural tube morphogenesis. Based on sequence conservation and biochemical analysis, we predict that the Shroom-Rock interaction is highly conserved across animal evolution and represents a signaling module that is utilized in a variety of biological processes.
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    ABSTRACT: Neural tube closure is a critical developmental event that relies on actomyosin contractility to facilitate specific processes such as apical constriction, tissue bending, and directional cell rearrangements. These complicated processes require the coordinated activities of Rho-Kinase (Rock), to regulate cytoskeletal dynamics and actomyosin contractility, and the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway, to direct the polarized cellular behaviors that drive convergent extension (CE) movements. Here we investigate the role of Shroom3 as a direct linker between PCP and actomyosin contractility during mouse neural tube morphogenesis. In embryos, simultaneous depletion of Shroom3 and the PCP components Vangl2 or Wnt5a results in an increased liability to NTDs and CE failure. We further show that these pathways intersect at Dishevelled, as Shroom3 and Dishevelled 2 co-distribute and form a physical complex in cells. We observed that multiple components of the Shroom3 pathway are planar polarized along mediolateral cell junctions in the neural plate of E8.5 embryos in a Shroom3 and PCP-dependent manner. Finally, we demonstrate that Shroom3 mutant embryos exhibit defects in planar cell arrangement during neural tube closure, suggesting a role for Shroom3 activity in CE. These findings support a model in which the Shroom3 and PCP pathways interact to control CE and polarized bending of the neural plate and provide a clear illustration of the complex genetic basis of NTDs. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
    01/2015; 4(2). DOI:10.1242/bio.20149589
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    ABSTRACT: Apical constriction (AC) is a widely utilized mechanism of cell shape change whereby epithelial cells transform from a cylindrical to conical shape, which can facilitate morphogenetic movements during embryonic development. Invertebrate epithelial cells undergoing AC depend on the contraction of apical cortex-spanning actomyosin filaments that generate force on the apical junctions and pull them toward the middle of the cell, effectively reducing the apical circumference. A current challenge is to determine whether these mechanisms are conserved in vertebrates and to identify the molecules responsible for linking apical junctions with the AC machinery. Utilizing the developing mouse eye as a model, we have uncovered evidence that lens placode AC may be partially dependent on apically positioned myosin-containing filaments associated with the zonula adherens. In addition we found that, among several junctional components, p120-catenin genetically interacts with Shroom3, a protein required for AC during embryonic morphogenesis. Further analysis revealed that, similar to Shroom3, p120-catenin is required for AC of lens cells. Finally, we determined that p120-catenin functions by recruiting Shroom3 to adherens junctions. Together, these data identify a novel role for p120-catenin during AC and further define the mechanisms required for vertebrate AC.
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