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Engagement of β-arrestin by transactivated insulin-like growth factor receptor is needed for V2 vasopressin receptor-stimulated ERK1/2 activation.

Institut de Recherche en Immunologie et Cancérologie, Département de Biochimie and Groupe de Recherche Universitaire sur le Médicament, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada H3C 3J7.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.81). 04/2012; 109(17):E1028-37. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1112422109
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases, ERK1/2, through both G protein-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Here, we describe a G protein-independent mechanism that unravels an unanticipated role for β-arrestins. Stimulation of the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) in cultured cells or in vivo in rat kidney medullar collecting ducts led to the activation of ERK1/2 through the metalloproteinase-mediated shedding of a factor activating the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR). This process was found to be both Src- and β-arrestin-dependent. Whereas Src was found to act upstream of the metalloproteinase activation and be required for the release of the IGFR-activating factor, β-arrestins were found to act downstream of the IGFR transactivation. Unexpectedly, the engagement of β-arrestins by the IGFR but not by the V2R was needed to promote the vasopressin-stimulated ERK1/2 activation, indicating that a pool of β-arrestins distinct from those β-arrestins recruited to the V2R acts downstream of the receptor tyrosine kinase to activate ERK1/2. Such a dual site of action for β-arrestins helps explain the pleiotropic actions of this scaffolding protein. Given the role that V2R-stimulated ERK1/2 plays in kidney cell proliferation, this transactivation mechanism may have important implications for renal pathophysiology. Still, the role of β-arrestins downstream of a transactivation event is not limited to the V2R, because we observed a similar involvement for an unrelated GPCR (the platelet-activating factor receptor), indicating that it may be a general mechanism shared among GPCRs.

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