Anthrax outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009-2010.

Centre for Communicable Diseases, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.53). 04/2012; 86(4):703-10. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0234
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During August 2009-October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future.

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    ABSTRACT: In 2010, we investigated anthrax outbreak in Bhutan. A total of 43 domestic animals died, and cutaneous anthrax developed in 9 persons, and 1 died. All affected persons had contact with the carcasses of infected animals. Comprehensive preparedness and response guidelines are needed to increase public awareness of anthrax in Bhutan.
    Emerging infectious diseases 09/2014; 20(9):15524-1526. DOI:10.3201/eid2009.140181 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vaccination is usually practiced to prevent and control anthrax in Bangladesh. For this purpose, vaccine prepared from Sterne F-24 strain of Bacillus anthracis by Livestock Research Institute (LRI), Mohakhali, Dhaka has long been used in this country. However, in some cases anthrax occurred in vaccinated animals in Bangladesh. A total of 100 cattle at LalTeer Livestock Research and Development Farm, LalTeerLivestock Limited, Bangladesh, aging between 3-6 years and weighing between 250-400 kg were randomly selected for vaccination purpose. Blood samples (n=100) were collected before the vaccination for collecting pre-vaccination serum, and the animals were vaccinated (at 1 mL/animal; 1x10 7 spores/mL) with the anthrax vaccine produced by LRI. All blood samples from the vaccinated animals were collected on day 7, 28, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 270, 300, 330, and 360 of post-vaccination, and serum samples were prepared. The antibody levels in the serum samples against anthrax were monitored using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Over the course of 12 months, the antibody titers were found at the level higher than the reference value. Though there were reports on anthrax suspected cases in this farm, no such cases were reported during the study period. Thus, the vaccine appears to induce adequate antibody response against anthrax in Bangladesh.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Bacillus anthracis is a gram positive, spore forming, rod shaped bacteria which is the etiologic agent of anthrax – cutaneous, pulmonary and gastrointestinal. A recent outbreak of anthrax in a tropical region uncovered natural and in vitro resistance against penicillin, ciprofloxacin, quinolone due to over exposure of the pathogen to these antibiotics. This fact combined with the ongoing threat of using B. anthracis as a biological weapon proves that the identification of new therapeutic targets is urgently needed. Methods In this computational approach various databases and online based servers were used to detect essential proteins of B. anthracis A0248. Protein sequences of B. anthracis A0248 strain were retrieved from the NCBI database which was then run in CD-hit suite for clustering. NCBI BlastP against the human proteome and similarity search against DEG were done to find out essential human non-homologous proteins. Proteins involved in unique pathways were analyzed using KEGG genome database and PSORTb, CELLO v.2.5, ngLOC – these three tools were used to deduce putative cell surface proteins. Results Successive analysis revealed 116 proteins to be essential human non-homologs among which 17 were involved in unique metabolic pathways and 28 were predicted as membrane associated proteins. Both types of proteins can be exploited as they are unlikely to have homologous counterparts in the human host. Conclusion Being human non-homologous, these proteins can be targeted for potential therapeutic drug development in future. Targets on unique metabolic and membrane-bound proteins can block cell wall synthesis, bacterial replication and signal transduction respectively.
    Computational Biology and Chemistry 09/2014; 52:66-72. DOI:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2014.09.005 · 1.60 Impact Factor


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May 26, 2014