Reduced Calreticulin Levels Link Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Fas-Triggered Cell Death in Motoneurons Vulnerable to ALS
ABSTRACT Cellular responses to protein misfolding are thought to play key roles in triggering neurodegeneration. In the mutant superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), subsets of motoneurons are selectively vulnerable to degeneration. Fast fatigable motoneurons selectively activate an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response that drives their early degeneration while a subset of mSOD1 motoneurons show exacerbated sensitivity to activation of the motoneuron-specific Fas/NO pathway. However, the links between the two mechanisms and the molecular basis of their cellular specificity remained unclear. We show that Fas activation leads, specifically in mSOD1 motoneurons, to reductions in levels of calreticulin (CRT), a calcium-binding ER chaperone. Decreased expression of CRT is both necessary and sufficient to trigger SOD1(G93A) motoneuron death through the Fas/NO pathway. In SOD1(G93A) mice in vivo, reductions in CRT precede muscle denervation and are restricted to vulnerable motor pools. In vitro, both reduced CRT and Fas activation trigger an ER stress response that is restricted to, and required for death of, vulnerable SOD1(G93A) motoneurons. Our data reveal CRT as a critical link between a motoneuron-specific death pathway and the ER stress response and point to a role of CRT levels in modulating motoneuron vulnerability to ALS.
- SourceAvailable from: Jean-Jacques Médard
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- "Although the familial cases represent only $10% of all ALS cases, their characterization led to substantial insight into the pathophysiology of ALS (Sreedharan and Brown, 2013). Accumulating evidence from mouse models of motor neuron disease implicated synaptic pathology (Pun et al., 2006), mitochondrial dysfunction (Court and Coleman, 2012), calcium signalling impairment (Bernard-Marissal et al., 2012), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (Saxena et al., 2009) and disturbances of axonal transport (Bilsland et al., 2010) as critical factors involved in motor neuron degeneration in ALS mouse models. "
ABSTRACT: Mutations in Sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) have been previously identified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and disruption of Sigmar1 in mouse leads to locomotor deficits. However, cellular mechanisms underlying motor phenotypes in human and mouse with disturbed SIGMAR1 function have not been described so far. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to investigate the role of SIGMAR1 in motor neuron biology. Characterization of Sigmar1(-/-) mice revealed that affected animals display locomotor deficits associated with muscle weakness, axonal degeneration and motor neuron loss. Using primary motor neuron cultures, we observed that pharmacological or genetic inactivation of SIGMAR1 led to motor neuron axonal degeneration followed by cell death. Disruption of SIGMAR1 function in motor neurons disturbed endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria contacts, affected intracellular calcium signalling and was accompanied by activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and defects in mitochondrial dynamics and transport. These defects were not observed in cultured sensory neurons, highlighting the exacerbated sensitivity of motor neurons to SIGMAR1 function. Interestingly, the inhibition of mitochondrial fission was sufficient to induce mitochondria axonal transport defects as well as axonal degeneration similar to the changes observed after SIGMAR1 inactivation or loss. Intracellular calcium scavenging and endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibition were able to restore mitochondrial function and consequently prevent motor neuron degeneration. These results uncover the cellular mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration mediated by loss of SIGMAR1 function and provide therapeutically relevant insight into motor neuronal diseases. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.Brain 02/2015; 138(4). DOI:10.1093/brain/awv008 · 10.23 Impact Factor
Article: Calcium homeostasis in aging neurons[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The nervous system becomes increasingly vulnerable to insults and prone to dysfunction during aging. Age-related decline of neuronal function is manifested by the late onset of many neurodegenerative disorders, as well as by reduced signaling and processing capacity of individual neuron populations. Recent findings indicate that impairment of Ca(2+) homeostasis underlies the increased susceptibility of neurons to damage, associated with the aging process. However, the impact of aging on Ca(2+) homeostasis in neurons remains largely unknown. Here, we survey the molecular mechanisms that mediate neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis and discuss the impact of aging on their efficacy. To address the question of how aging impinges on Ca(2+) homeostasis, we consider potential nodes through which mechanisms regulating Ca(2+) levels interface with molecular pathways known to influence the process of aging and senescent decline. Delineation of this crosstalk would facilitate the development of interventions aiming to fortify neurons against age-associated functional deterioration and death by augmenting Ca(2+) homeostasis.Frontiers in Genetics 10/2012; 3:200. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2012.00200
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ABSTRACT: Missense mutations in the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene cause a wide spectrum of hypomyelinating disorders, from mild spastic paraplegia type 2 to severe Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). Mutant PLP1 accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and induces ER stress. However, the link between the clinical severity of PMD and the cellular response induced by mutant PLP1 remains largely unknown. Accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER generally leads to up-regulation of ER chaperones to alleviate ER stress. Here, we found that expression of PLP1A243V mutant, which causes severe disease, depletes some ER chaperones with a KDEL (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu) motif, in HeLa cells, MO3.13 oligodendrocytic cells and primary oligodendrocytes. The same PLP1 mutant also induces fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus (GA). These organelle changes are less prominent in cells with milder disease-associated PLP1 mutants. Similar changes are also observed in cells expressing another disease-causing gene that triggers ER stress, as well as in cells treated with brefeldin A, which induces ER stress and GA fragmentation by inhibiting GA-to-ER trafficking. We also found that mutant PLP1 disturbs the localization of KDEL receptor, which transports the chaperones with KDEL motif from the GA to the ER. These data show that PLP1 mutants inhibit GA-to-ER trafficking, which reduces the supply of ER chaperones and induces GA fragmentation. We propose that depletion of ER chaperones and GA fragmentation induced by mutant misfolded proteins contribute to the pathogenesis of inherited ER stress-related diseases and affect the disease severity.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2013; 288(11). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.435388 · 4.57 Impact Factor