Arsenic trioxide prevents murine sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease.
ABSTRACT Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) follows allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It results from alloreactive processes induced by minor MHC incompatibilities triggered by activated APCs, such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and leading to the activation of CD4 T cells. Therefore, we tested whether CD4(+) and pDCs, activated cells that produce high levels of reactive oxygen species, could be killed by arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), a chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Indeed, As(2)O(3) exerts its cytotoxic effects by inducing a powerful oxidative stress that exceeds the lethal threshold. Sclerodermatous GVHD was induced in BALB/c mice by body irradiation, followed by B10.D2 bone marrow and spleen cell transplantation. Mice were simultaneously treated with daily i.p. injections of As(2)O(3). Transplanted mice displayed severe clinical symptoms, including diarrhea, alopecia, vasculitis, and fibrosis of the skin and visceral organs. The symptoms were dramatically abrogated in mice treated with As(2)O(3). These beneficial effects were mediated through the depletion of glutathione and the overproduction of H(2)O(2) that killed activated CD4(+) T cells and pDCs. The dramatic improvement provided by As(2)O(3) in the model of sclerodermatous GVHD that associates fibrosis with immune activation provides a rationale for the evaluation of As(2)O(3) in the management of patients affected by chronic GVHD.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to test the naturally occurring organosulfur compound dipropyltetrasulfide (DPTTS), found in plants, which has antibiotic and anticancer properties, as a treatment for HOCl-induced systemic sclerosis in the mouse. The prooxidative, antiproliferative, and cytotoxic effects of DPTTS were evaluated ex vivo on fibroblasts from normal and HOCl mice. In vivo, the antifibrotic and immunomodulating properties of DPTTS were evaluated in the skin and lungs of HOCl mice. H2O2 production was higher in fibroblasts derived from HOCl mice than in normal fibroblasts (P < 0.05). DPTTS did not increase H2O2 production in normal fibroblasts, but DPTTS dose-dependently increased H2O2 production in HOCl fibroblasts (P < 0.001 with 40 μM DPTTS). Because H2O2 reached a lethal threshold in cells from HOCl mice, the antiproliferative, cytotoxic, and proapoptotic effects of DPTTS were significantly higher in HOCl fibroblasts than for normal fibroblasts. In vivo, DPTTS decreased dermal thickness (P < 0.001), collagen content in skin (P < 0.01) and lungs (P < 0.05), αSMA (P < 0.01) and pSMAD2/3 (P < 0.01) expression in skin, formation of advanced oxidation protein products and anti-DNA topoisomerase-1 antibodies in serum (P < 0.05) versus untreated HOCl mice. Moreover, in HOCl mice, DPTTS reduced splenic B-cell counts (P < 0.01), the proliferative rates of B-splenocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (P < 0.05), and T-splenocytes stimulated by anti-CD3/CD28 mAb (P < 0.001). Ex vivo, it also reduced the production of IL-4 and IL-13 by activated T cells (P < 0.05 in both cases). The natural organosulfur compound DPTTS prevents skin and lung fibrosis in the mouse through the selective killing of diseased fibroblasts and its immunomodulating properties. DPTTS may be a potential treatment for systemic sclerosis.Arthritis research & therapy 01/2013; 15(5):R167. · 4.27 Impact Factor
Article: Arsenic immunotoxicity: a review.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Exposure to arsenic (As) is a global public health problem because of its association with various cancers and numerous other pathological effects, and millions of people worldwide are exposed to As on a regular basis. Increasing lines of evidence indicate that As may adversely affect the immune system, but its specific effects on immune function are poorly understood. Therefore, we conducted a literature search of non-cancer immune-related effects associated with As exposure and summarized the known immunotoxicological effects of As in humans, animals and in vitro models. Overall, the data show that chronic exposure to As has the potential to impair vital immune responses which could lead to increased risk of infections and chronic diseases, including various cancers. Although animal and in vitro models provide some insight into potential mechanisms of the As-related immunotoxicity observed in human populations, further investigation, particularly in humans, is needed to better understand the relationship between As exposure and the development of disease.Environmental Health 09/2013; 12(1):73. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components eventually resulting in organ dysfunction and failure. In dermatology, fibrosis is the hallmark component of many skin diseases, including systemic sclerosis, graft-versus-host disease, hypertrophic scars, keloids, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, restrictive dermopathy and other conditions. Fibrotic skin disorders may be debilitating and impair quality of life. There are few FDA-approved anti-fibrotic drugs; thus, research in this area is crucial in addressing this deficiency. Recent investigations elucidating the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis have implicated endogenous reactive oxygen species produced by the multicomponent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) enzyme complex. In this review, we discuss Nox enzymes and their role in skin fibrosis. An overview of the Nox enzyme family is presented and their role in the pathogenesis of skin fibrosis is discussed. The mechanisms by which Nox enzymes influence specific fibrotic skin disorders are also reviewed. Finally, we describe the therapeutic approaches to ameliorate skin fibrosis by directly targeting Nox enzymes with the use of statins, p47phox subunit modulators, or GKT137831, a competitive inhibitor of Nox enzymes. Nox enzymes can also be targeted indirectly via scavenging ROS with antioxidants. We believe that Nox modulators are worthy of further investigation and have the potential to transform the management of skin fibrosis by dermatologists.Archives for Dermatological Research 10/2013; · 2.71 Impact Factor