Tolerance of anhydrobiotic eggs of the Tardigrade Ramazzottius varieornatus to extreme environments.
ABSTRACT Tardigrades are tiny (less than 1 mm in length) invertebrate animals that have the potential to survive travel to other planets because of their tolerance to extreme environmental conditions by means of a dry ametabolic state called anhydrobiosis. While the tolerance of adult tardigrades to extreme environments has been reported, there are few reports on the tolerance of their eggs. We examined the ability of hydrated and anhydrobiotic eggs of the tardigrade Ramazzottius varieornatus to hatch after exposure to ionizing irradiation (helium ions), extremely low and high temperatures, and high vacuum. We previously reported that there was a similar pattern of tolerance against ionizing radiation between hydrated and anhydrobiotic adults. In contrast, anhydrobiotic eggs (50% lethal dose; 1690 Gy) were substantially more radioresistant than hydrated ones (50% lethal dose; 509 Gy). Anhydrobiotic eggs also have a broader temperature resistance compared with hydrated ones. Over 70% of the anhydrobiotic eggs treated at either -196°C or +50°C hatched successfully, but all the hydrated eggs failed to hatch. After exposure to high-vacuum conditions (5.3×10(-4) Pa to 6.2×10(-5) Pa), the hatchability of the anhydrobiotic eggs was comparable to that of untreated control eggs.
- Biological Reviews 06/1972; 47(2):211-40. · 10.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Tardigrades are known to survive high doses of ionizing radiation. However, there have been no reports about radiation effects in tardigrades under culture conditions. In this study, we investigated tolerance of the tardigrade, Milnesium tardigradum, against gamma-rays and heavy ions by determining short-term or long-term survival, and reproductive ability after irradiation. Hydrated and anhydrobiotic animals were exposed to gamma-rays (1000 - 7000 Gy) or heavy ions (1000 - 8000 Gy) to evaluate short-term survival at 2, 24 and 48 h post-irradiation. Long-term survival and reproduction were observed up to 31 days after irradiation with gamma-rays (1000 - 4000 Gy). At 48 h after irradiation, median lethal doses were 5000 Gy (gamma-rays) and 6200 Gy (heavy ions) in hydrated animals, and 4400 Gy (gamma-rays) and 5200 Gy (heavy ions) in anhydrobiotic ones. Gamma-irradiation shortened average life span in a dose-dependent manner both in hydrated and anhydrobiotic groups. No irradiated animals laid eggs with one exception in which a hydrated animal irradiated with 2000 Gy of gamma-rays laid 3 eggs, and those eggs failed to hatch, whereas eggs produced by non-irradiated animals hatched successfully. M. tardigradum survives high doses of ionizing radiation in both hydrated and anhydrobiotic states, but irradiation with >1000 Gy makes them sterile.International Journal of Radiation Biology 12/2006; 82(12):843-8. · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Viability rates were determined for microbial populations of Escherichia coli and Deinococcus radiodurans under the environmental stresses of low temperature (-35 degrees C), low-pressure conditions (83.3 kPa), and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (37 W/m(2)). During the stress tests the organisms were suspended in saltwater soil and freshwater soil media, at variable burial depths, and in seawater. Microbial populations of both organisms were most susceptible to dehydration stress associated with low-pressure conditions, and to UV irradiation. However, suspension in a liquid water medium and burial at larger depths (5 cm) improved survival rates markedly. Our results indicate that planetary surfaces that possess little to no atmosphere and have low water availability do not constitute a favorable environment for terrestrial microorganisms.Astrobiology 05/2006; 6(2):332-47. · 2.80 Impact Factor