Bioactive Peptides from Marine Organisms: A Short Overview

Instituto de Quimica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, DF, Mexico.
Protein and Peptide Letters (Impact Factor: 1.07). 04/2012; 19(7):700-7. DOI: 10.2174/092986612800793208
Source: PubMed


Marine organisms are an immense source of new biologically active compounds. These compounds are unique because the aqueous environment requires a high demand of specific and potent bioactive molecules. Diverse peptides with a wide range of biological activities have been discovered, including antimicrobial, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and toxins amongst others. These proteins have been isolated from different phyla such as Porifera, Cnidaria, Nemertina, Crustacea, Mollusca, Echinodermata and Craniata. Purification techniques used to isolate these peptides include classical chromatographic methods such as gel filtration, ionic exchange and reverse-phase HPLC. Multiple in vivo and in vitro bioassays are coupled to the purification process to search for the biological activity of interest. The growing interest to study marine natural products results from the discovery of novel pharmacological tools including potent anticancer drugs now in clinical trials. This review presents examples of interesting peptides obtained from different marine organisms that have medical relevance. It also presents some of the common methods used to isolate and characterize them.

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Available from: Roberto Arreguin, Feb 27, 2014
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    • "Marine organisms have highly developed defense system in order to survive in the hostile conditions such as extreme temperatures, varied pressures (low or high), low energy and lack of sunlight. Thus, marine organisms offer a unique genetic pool that may possess the potential of treating several diseases including rare diseases or the ailments that are still considered incurable (Demunshi and Chugh, 2010; Lazcano-Pérez et al., 2012). This can be effectively deduced from the successfully FDA approved drugs (Table 1) such as Cytarabine (Ara-C), vidarabine (Ara-A), ziconotide, trabectedin, eribulin mesylate (Mayer et al., 2010; Martins et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: The remarkable growth of bio-based industry has led to a rapid increase in the bioprospecting activities. The marine biomes are a rich reservoir of unique life systems making them an attractive target for bioprospecting for identification and development of potential drug molecules for human therapeutics. Many of the drug molecules such as ara-c, trabecetidin and eribulin have been discovered from marine organisms. It is noteworthy that indigenous communities have developed, preserved as well as evolved the marine traditional knowledge from one generation to next. Pharmaceutical companies utilize marine life based traditional knowledge developed by the communities at various stages of drug development, unfortunately, many a times without having a mechanism of access and benefit sharing in place. One such example is the marine bioprospecting Fiji contract that illustrates the role played by Fijian community and the lacuna in access and benefit sharing mechanisms. The present study is an attempt to explore the mechanism of fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from use of marine bioresources with the local communities as marine traditional knowledge holders in marine areas. It briefly describes the various international conventions and protocols that emphasize on the development of fair and equitable benefit sharing mechanisms. The study proposes marine bioprospecting contracts that are based on mutually agreed terms among the key stakeholders (the State with the genetic resources, traditional knowledge holders and marine bioprospectors). Marine bioprospecting contracts eventually will need to be customized as per the legislation of a country because of territorial nature of law. Also, the marine bioprospecting contracts will differ from other bioprospecting contracts due to various unique parameters associated with the activity such as economics of deep sea explorations (expensive processes of exploration and sample extraction), continuous supply of sample, the jurisdiction of marine areas and traditional knowledge associated. The present study elucidates the concept of marine bioprospecting contracts by considering India as a case study emphasizing sharing of benefits with traditional knowledge holders as well as ensuring sustainable use of marine genetic resources by the pharmaceutical sector.
    Global Ecology and Conservation 01/2015; 3:176-187. DOI:10.1016/j.gecco.2014.11.015
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    • "Marine organisms are an immense source of new biologically active compounds. One of the approaches for the effective acquisition of bioactive peptides from marine organisms is direct extraction, which is widely applied to improve and upgrade the functional and nutritional properties of proteins [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A new antitumor and antioxidant peptide (H3) was isolated from Arca subcrenata Lischke using ion exchange and hydrophobic column chromatography. The purity of H3 was over 99.3% in reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and the molecular weight was determined to be 20,491.0 Da by electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The isoelectric point of H3 was measured to be 6.65 by isoelectric focusing-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Partial amino acid sequence of this peptide was determined as ISMEDVEESRKNGMHSIDVNH DGKHRAYWADNTYLM-KCMDLPYDVLDTGGKDRSSDKNTDLVDLFELDMVPDRK NNECMNMIMDVIDTN-TAARPYYCSLDVNHDGAGLSMEDVEEDK via MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS and de novo sequencing. The in vitro antitumor activity of H3 was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The result indicated that H3 exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against HeLa, HepG2 and HT-29 cell lines with IC50 values of 10.8, 10.1 and 10.5 μg/mL. The scavenging percentage of H3 at 8 mg/mL to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radicals were 56.8% and 47.5%, respectively.
    Marine Drugs 06/2013; 11(6):1800-1814. DOI:10.3390/md11061800 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biological transformation of toxins as research probes, or as pharmaceutical drug leads, is an onerous and drawn out process. Issues regarding changes to pharmacological specificity, desired potency, and bioavailability are compounded naturally by their inherent toxicity. These often scuttle their progress as they move up the narrowing drug development pipeline. Yet one class of peptide toxins, from the genus Conus, has in many ways spearheaded the expansion of new peptide bioengineering techniques to aid peptide toxin pharmaceutical development. What has now emerged is the sequential bioengineering of new research probes and drug leads that owe their lineage to these highly potent and isoform specific peptides. Here we discuss the progressive bioengineering steps that many conopeptides have transitioned through, and specifically illustrate some of the biochemical approaches that have been established to maximize their biological research potential and pharmaceutical worth.
    Chemico-biological interactions 10/2012; 200(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2012.09.021 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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