The prognostic significance of lymphopenia in peripheral T-cell and natural killer/T-cell lymphomas: a study of 826 cases from the International Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Project.
ABSTRACT Lymphopenia is a marker of inferior survival in patients with various malignancies. However, the prognostic significance of lymphopenia in peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is unclear. We analyzed the prognostic significance of lymphopenia in 826 patients with different types of PTCL and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) from the International Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma Project. Lymphopenia was defined as an absolute lymphocyte count of less than 1,000 cells per microliter. The overall frequency of lymphopenia was 35.3%, ranging from 21.1% in ALK(+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) to 47.5% in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL). Lymphopenia was independently associated with an inferior overall survival (OS) in patients with the lymphoma type of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), with a 2-year OS of 15% versus 40% for those without lymphopenia (P < 0.001). Lymphopenia was also an adverse predictor of survival in PTCL, not otherwise specified, but was associated with other unfavorable prognostic factors. A trend toward inferior survival for lymphopenic patients was also observed in AITL, ALK(-) ALCL and extranasal NKTCL lymphoma, whereas no difference in survival was found in nasal NKTCL, ALK(+) ALCL, or enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. In this study, lymphopenia was identified as a new adverse prognostic factor in the lymphoma type of ATLL.
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ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is a distinct peripheral T-lymphocytic malignancy associated with a retrovirus designated human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1). The diversity in clinical features and prognosis of patients with this disease has led to its subclassification into the following four categories: acute, lymphoma, chronic, and smoldering types. The chronic and smoldering subtypes are considered indolent and are usually managed with watchful waiting until disease progression, analogous to the management of some patients with chronic lymphoid leukemia (CLL) or other indolent histology lymphomas. Patients with aggressive ATL generally have a poor prognosis because of multidrug resistance of malignant cells, a large tumor burden with multiorgan failure, hypercalcemia, and/or frequent infectious complications as a result of a profound T-cell immunodeficiency. Under the sponsorship of the 13th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV, a group of ATL researchers joined to form a consensus statement based on established data to define prognostic factors, clinical subclassifications, and treatment strategies. A set of response criteria specific for ATL reflecting a combination of those for lymphoma and CLL was proposed. Clinical subclassification is useful but is limited because of the diverse prognosis among each subtype. Molecular abnormalities within the host genome, such as tumor suppressor genes, may account for these diversities. A treatment strategy based on the clinical subclassification and prognostic factors is suggested, including watchful waiting approach, chemotherapy, antiviral therapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT), and targeted therapies.Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2009; 27(3):453-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic significance of clinicobiologic and pathological features in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), 157 AITL patients were retrieved from the GELA LNH87-LNH93 randomized clinical trials. One hundred forty-seven patients received a cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP)-like regimen with intensified courses in half of them. Histologically, 41 cases were classified as "rich in large cells" and 116 as "classic" (including 19 rich in epithelioid cells, 14 rich in clear cells, and 4 with hyperplastic germinal centers). Sixty-two cases were scored for CD10 and CXCL13 expression according to the abundance of positive lymphoid cells. Median age was 62 years, with 81% advanced stage, 72% B symptoms, 65% anemia, 50% hypergammaglobulinemia, and 66% elevated LDH. Overall 7-year survival was 30%. In multivariate analysis, only male sex (P = .004), mediastinal lymphadenopathy (P = .041), and anemia (P = .042) adversely affected overall survival. Increase in large cells and high level of CD10 and CXCL13 did not affect survival. Intensive regimen did not improve survival. In conclusion, AITL is a morphologically heterogeneous T-cell lymphoma commonly expressing CXCL13 and CD10 and carrying few prognostic factors. It portends a poor prognosis even when treated intensively. However, AITL is not always lethal with 30% of patients alive at 7 years.Blood 06/2008; 111(9):4463-70. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A specific predictor during routine follow-up to ascertain risk for postautologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (post-APHSCT) relapse in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has not been identified. Thus, we studied if new-onset lymphopenia measured by the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) was a marker of post-APHSCT NHL relapse. ALC was obtained at the time of confirmed relapse, and at last follow-up with no relapse. From 1993 until 2005, 269 patients treated with APHSCT for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were included in this study. Patients at last follow-up without relapse (N=137) had a higher ALC compared with those with low ALC at the time of confirmed relapsed (N=132) (median ALC x10(9)/L of 1.66 versus 0.71, P < .0001, respectively). ALC at follow-up was a strong predictor for relapse with an area under the curve (AUC)=0.86 (P < .0001). An ALC <1.0 x 10(9)/L at the time of confirmed relapse had a positive predictive value of 89% and a positive likelihood ratio of 8.4 to predict relapse post-APHSCT. Patients with an ALC > or =1.0 x 10(9)/L (N=147) had a cumulative incidence of relapse of 19% versus 92%, with an ALC <1.0 x 10(9)/L (N=122) (P < .0001). This study suggests that new-onset lymphopenia measured by ALC can be used as marker to assess risk of DLBCL relapse during routine follow-up for after APHSCT.Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 10/2009; 16(3):376-83. · 3.15 Impact Factor