Association between plaque echogenicity and embolic material captured in filter during protected carotid angioplasty and stenting.
ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to investigate debris captured in filter embolic protection devices (EPDs) during carotid artery stenting (CAS) and its possible correlation with plaque echogenicity and other risk factors.
Between June 2010 and March 2011, 51 consecutive CAS patients (11 females, mean age 71.2 ± 7, 10 symptomatic) who underwent 53 procedures were included in this prospective study. Ultrasonographic Gray-Weale plaque type (I-V, echolucent to echogenic) characterisation was obtained in all cases. The same type of stent and filter EPD was used. Filters were collected and, after macroscopic evaluation, they were examined using the Thin-Prep(®) liquid-based cytology (LBC) technique.
Technical success was 100%. Thirty-day stroke and death rates were 1.8% (1/53) and 0%, respectively. Visible debris was detected in eight (15%) filters, whereas LBC revealed the presence of embolic material particles in 30 filters (56.6%). The presence of embolic material into the filter EPD was 2.38-fold increased for every category change from type IV to type I carotid plaques (OR = 2.38, 95%CI = 1.15-4.93). This association remained robust even after adjustment for age, gender and known atherosclerotic disease risk factors (OR = 2.26, 95%CI = 1.02-5.02). In multivariate analysis for risk factors, hypertension was associated with increased presence of embolic material detection in filter EPD (OR = 20.4, 95%CI = 1.28-326.1). The time distance from symptom to CAS was inversely correlated with debris quantity in EPD (Spearman rho -0.716; p = 0.02).
Echolucent plaques, smaller time frame from last symptom and hypertension were associated with increased presence of embolic material.