Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide (AO/EB) Staining to Detect Apoptosis.
- SourceAvailable from: Pawan G. Nayak[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor potential of iminoflavones in in vitro and in vivo anticancer models. Preliminary screening in various cancer cell lines revealed four potential iminoflavones out of which IMF-8 was taken based on its activity against colon cancer cells. This was further confirmed by observing the nuclear changes in the cells by AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining studies. In vivo activity was assessed by dimethyl hydrazine-(DMH-) induced colon cancer model in rats. Animals were administered DMH (20 mg/kg, b.w. for 10 weeks and 30 mg/kg b.w., i.p. for 10 weeks) and were supplemented with (IMF-8) iminoflavone-8 (200 mg/kg, p.o. for 14 days). Results showed that DMH induced 100% aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and polyps which were significantly reduced in the IMF-8 treated group. IMF-8 significantly increased the catalase and GSH levels whereas it reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 levels markedly which suggests the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions of flavonoids present in IMF-8. The histopathological images of the IMF-8 treated colon showed no signs of mucosal crypt abscess. These findings suggest that the semi-synthetic iminoflavones, IMF-8, effectively inhibit DMH-induced ACFs and colonic crypts by alleviating the oxidative stress and suppressing the inflammation.BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014(Article ID 569130):1-7. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are underpinned for initiating a cascade of toxic events leading to dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD) and identified as vital target for therapeutic intervention. Curcumin, a potent antioxidant has been reported to display diverse neuroprotective properties against various neurodegenerative diseases including PD. In this present study, we investigated the protective effect of CNB-001, a pyrazole derivative of curcumin on rotenone-induced toxicity and its possible mechanisms in neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells. Rotenone insult significantly reduced cell viability (MTT assay) and resulted in 78 % apoptosis (dual staining) by altering Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and cytochrome C expression. Moreover, rotenone enhanced ROS production and disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential. These resultant phenotypes were distinctly alleviated by CNB-001. Pretreatment with CNB-001(2 μM) 2 h before rotenone exposure (100 nM) increased cell viability, decreased ROS formation, maintained normal physiological mitochondrial membrane potential, and reduced apoptosis. Furthermore, CNB-001 inhibited downstream apoptotic cascade by increasing the expression of vital antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax, caspase-3, and cytochrome C. Collectively, the results suggest that CNB-001 protects neuronal cell against toxicity through antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties through its action on mitochondria. Therefore, it may be concluded that CNB-001 can be further developed as a promising drug for treatment of PD.Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 07/2013; · 2.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: NAIP5/NLRC4 (neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein 5/nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor family, caspase activation recruitment domain domain-containing 4) inflammasome activation by cytosolic flagellin results in caspase-1-mediated processing and secretion of IL-1β/IL-18 and pyroptosis, an inflammatory cell death pathway. Here, we found that although NLRC4, ASC, and caspase-1 are required for IL-1β secretion in response to cytosolic flagellin, cell death, nevertheless, occurs in the absence of these molecules. Cytosolic flagellin-induced inflammasome-independent cell death is accompanied by IL-1α secretion and is temporally correlated with the restriction of Salmonella Typhimurium infection. Despite displaying some apoptotic features, this peculiar form of cell death do not require caspase activation but is regulated by a lysosomal pathway, in which cathepsin B and cathepsin D play redundant roles. Moreover, cathepsin B contributes to NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasome-induced pyroptosis and IL-1α and IL-1β production in response to cytosolic flagellin. Together, our data describe a pathway induced by cytosolic flagellin that induces a peculiar form of cell death and regulates inflammasome-mediated effector mechanisms of macrophages.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2006. 2006: pdb.prot4493-
Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide (AO/EB)
Staining to Detect Apoptosis
This protocol was adapted from “Apoptosis Assays,” Chapter 15, in Cells (eds. Spector et
al.). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA, 1998. This
three-volume set is now out of print; however, some of the microscopy methods were
republished in Basic Methods in Microscopy, by David L. Spector and Robert D.
Shailaja Kasibhatla, , Gustavo P. Amarante-Mendes
Thomas Brunner, , Ella Bossy-Wetzel
Gustavo P. Amarante-Mendes, , Deborah Finucane
Ella Bossy-Wetzel and
Deborah Finucane, ,
and Douglas R. GreenDouglas R. Green
Acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining is used to visualize nuclear
changes and apoptotic body formation that are characteristic of apoptosis. Cells
are viewed under a fluorescence microscope and counted to quantify apoptosis.
Fluorescence microscope with fluorescein filter and 60X objective
Slides and coverslips
1. Incubate 25 µl of cell suspension (0.5 × 106 to 2.0 × 106 cells/ml)
with 1 µl of AO/EB solution. Mix gently. Each sample should be mixed
just prior to microscopy and quantification. Samples must be
2. Place 10 µl of cell suspension onto a microscopic slide, cover with a
glass coverslip, and examine at least 300 cells in a fluorescence
microscope using a fluorescein filter and a 60X objective. (Higher or
lower magnification may be desired depending on cell type. Nuclear
morphology should be discernible.)
Acridine orange is a vital dye and will stain both live and dead cells.
Ethidium bromide will stain only cells that have lost membrane
integrity. Live cells will appear uniformly green. Early apoptotic cells
will stain green and contain bright green dots in the nuclei as a
consequence of chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation.
Late apoptotic cells will also incorporate ethidium bromide and
therefore stain orange, but, in contrast to necrotic cells, the late
apoptotic cells will show condensed and often fragmented nuclei.
Necrotic cells stain orange, but have a nuclear morphology
resembling that of viable cells, with no condensed chromatin.