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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: In the present study, we explored the modulatory effect of emodin (1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone, C15H10O5) against gamma radiation induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in acellular and cellular systems respectively. Materials and methods: For cellular systems, concanavalin A (Con A) stimulated murine splenocytes were used. Cytotoxic effect of emodin (0-400 µM), radiation (3-12 Gy) and emodin plus radiation was measured by MTT [3-(4, 5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl) 2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Gamma radiation (3-12 Gy) induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase in nitric oxide (NO) level and its inhibition by emodin were estimated by DCFDA(2'-7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate) and Griess regent respectively. Analysis of radiation induced apoptosis was done using flow cytometery and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. DNA damage was evaluated in acellular system using pBR322 plasmid relaxation assay. Results: Emodin was able to effectively scavenge radiation induced free radicals (ROS and NO) in murine splenocytes. Radiation induced apoptosis and cell death was also inhibited by emodin pre-treatment. It could significantly prevent radiation induced DNA damage. Conclusions: Protection against gamma radiation induced cell death and DNA damage by emodin could be attributed to its free radical scavenging activity. The present study is first report of radioprotective role of emodin in mammalian cells.
    International Journal of Radiation Biology 01/2014; · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antitumor potential of iminoflavones in in vitro and in vivo anticancer models. Preliminary screening in various cancer cell lines revealed four potential iminoflavones out of which IMF-8 was taken based on its activity against colon cancer cells. This was further confirmed by observing the nuclear changes in the cells by AO/EB and Hoechst 33342 staining studies. In vivo activity was assessed by dimethyl hydrazine-(DMH-) induced colon cancer model in rats. Animals were administered DMH (20 mg/kg, b.w. for 10 weeks and 30 mg/kg b.w., i.p. for 10 weeks) and were supplemented with (IMF-8) iminoflavone-8 (200 mg/kg, p.o. for 14 days). Results showed that DMH induced 100% aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and polyps which were significantly reduced in the IMF-8 treated group. IMF-8 significantly increased the catalase and GSH levels whereas it reduced the TNF-α and IL-6 levels markedly which suggests the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory actions of flavonoids present in IMF-8. The histopathological images of the IMF-8 treated colon showed no signs of mucosal crypt abscess. These findings suggest that the semi-synthetic iminoflavones, IMF-8, effectively inhibit DMH-induced ACFs and colonic crypts by alleviating the oxidative stress and suppressing the inflammation.
    BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014(Article ID 569130):1-7. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Natural phytochemicals and their derivatives are good drug candidates for anticancer therapeutic approaches against multiple targets. We report here the initial findings from our studies on the anticancer properties of the leaves of the medicinal plant Sesbania grandiflora. In the current study, five different solvent fractions from the leaves of S. grandiflora were tested on cancer cell lines such as MCF-7, HepG2, Hep-2, HCT-15, and A549. The methanolic fraction of S. grandiflora was found to exert potent antiproliferative effects especially in the human lung cancer cell line, A549. Caspase 3 was activated in the methanolic fraction treated A549 cells thereby leading to cell death by apoptosis. DAPI staining, DNA laddering, and decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential further confirmed the apoptotic mode of cell death. The high levels of ROS intermediates as evidenced by DCF-DA staining could have played a role in the apoptotic induction. Decrease in levels of cyclin D1 and decrease in the activation of NFkB were observed in A549 cells on treatment with methanolic fraction, giving a hint on the possible mechanism of action. These results prove that the medicinal plant S. grandiflora can be explored further for promising candidate molecules to combat cancer, especially lung cancer.
    BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:474953. · 2.71 Impact Factor

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