Inhibition of aggregation of amyloid β42 by arginine-containing small compounds.

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 1.21). 04/2012; 76(4):762-6. DOI: 10.1271/bbb.110879
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Aggregations of proteins are in many cases associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD). Small compounds capable of inhibiting protein aggregation are expected to be useful for not only in the treatment of disease but also in probing the structures of aggregated proteins. In previous studies using phage display, we found that arginine-rich short peptides consisting of four or seven amino acids bound to soluble 42-residue amyloid β (Aβ42) and inhibited globulomer (37/48 kDa oligomer) formation. In the present study, we searched for arginine-containing small molecules using the SciFinder searching service and tested their inhibitory activities against Aβ42 aggregation, by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE and thioflavine T binding assay. Commercially available Arg-Arg-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin was found to exhibit remarkable inhibitory activities to the formation of the globulomer and the fibril of Aβ42. This chimera-type tri-peptide is expected to serve as the seed molecule of a potent inhibitor of the Aβ aggregation process.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein misfolding, self-assembly, and aggregation are an essential problem in cell biology, biotechnology, and biomedicine. The protein aggregates are very different morphologically varying from soluble amorphous aggregates to highly ordered amyloid-like fibrils. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the amino acid L-arginine (Arg), a widely used suppressor of protein aggregation, in the regulation of transformations of soluble aggregation-prone proteins into supramolecular structures of higher order. However, a striking potential of Arg to govern the initial events in the process of protein aggregation has been revealed under environment conditions where the protein aggregation in its absence was not observed. Using dynamic light scattering we have demonstrated that Arg (10-100 mM) dramatically accelerated the dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of acidic model proteins. The inhibitory effect on the protein aggregation was revealed at higher concentrations of Arg. Using atomic force microscopy it was shown that aggregation of α-lactalbumin from bovine milk induced upon addition of Arg reached a state of formation of supramolecular structures of non-fibrillar species profoundly differing from those of the individual protein in type, size, and shape. The interaction of another positively charged amino acid L-lysine with α-lactalbumin also resulted in profound acceleration of the aggregation process and transformation of supramolecular structures of the aggregates.
    Amino Acids 06/2013; 45(4). DOI:10.1007/s00726-013-1528-7 · 3.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peptides have some unique and superior features compared to proteins. However, the use of peptides as therapeutics is hampered by their low stability and cell selectivity. In this study, a new lytic peptide (CL-1, FLGALFRALSRLL) was constructed. Under the physiological condition, peptide CL-1 self-assembled into dynamically stable aggregates with fibrils-like structures. Aggregated CL-1 demonstrated dramatically altered activity and stability in comparison with single molecule CL-1 and other lytic peptides: when incubated with co-cultured bacteria and tissue cells, CL-1 aggregates killed bacteria selectively but spared co-cultured human cells; CL-1 aggregates kept intact in human serum for more than five hours. Peptide-cell interaction studies performed on lipid monolayers and live human tissue cells revealed that in comparison with monomeric CL-1, aggregated CL-1 had decreased cell affinity and reduced membrane insertion capability on tissue cells. A dynamic process involving aggregate dissociation and rearrangement seemed to be an essential step for membrane bound CL-1 aggregates to realize its cytotoxicity to tissue cells. Our study suggests that peptide aggregation could be as important as the charge and secondary structure of a peptide in affecting peptide-cell interactions. Controlling peptide self-assembly represents a new way to increase the stability and cell selectivity of bioactive peptides for wide biomedical applications.
    Biomacromolecules 05/2013; 14(7). DOI:10.1021/bm400618m · 5.79 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) aggregation is one of the pathological markers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. The underlying molecular grounds of SOD1 pathologic aggregation remains obscure as mutations alone are not exclusively the cause for the formation of protein inclusions. Thus, other components in the cell environment likely play a key role in triggering SOD1 toxic aggregation in ALS. Recently, it was found that ALS patients present a specific altered metabolomic profile in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) where SOD1 is also present and potentially interacts with metabolites. Here we have investigated how some of these small molecules affect apoSOD1 structure and aggregation propensity. Our results show that as co-solvents, the tested small molecules do not affect apoSOD1 thermal stability but do influence its tertiary interactions and dynamics, as evidenced by combined biophysical analysis and proteolytic susceptibility. Moreover, these compounds influence apoSOD1 aggregation, decreasing nucleation time and promoting the formation of larger and less soluble aggregates, and in some cases polymeric assemblies apparently composed by spherical species resembling the soluble native protein. We conclude that some components of the ALS metabolome that shape the chemical environment in the CSF may influence apoSOD1 conformers and aggregation.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 09/2013; 14(9):19128-45. DOI:10.3390/ijms140919128 · 2.34 Impact Factor