Inhibition of aggregation of amyloid β42 by arginine-containing small compounds.
ABSTRACT Aggregations of proteins are in many cases associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD). Small compounds capable of inhibiting protein aggregation are expected to be useful for not only in the treatment of disease but also in probing the structures of aggregated proteins. In previous studies using phage display, we found that arginine-rich short peptides consisting of four or seven amino acids bound to soluble 42-residue amyloid β (Aβ42) and inhibited globulomer (37/48 kDa oligomer) formation. In the present study, we searched for arginine-containing small molecules using the SciFinder searching service and tested their inhibitory activities against Aβ42 aggregation, by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE and thioflavine T binding assay. Commercially available Arg-Arg-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin was found to exhibit remarkable inhibitory activities to the formation of the globulomer and the fibril of Aβ42. This chimera-type tri-peptide is expected to serve as the seed molecule of a potent inhibitor of the Aβ aggregation process.
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ABSTRACT: Aggregation of lysozyme in an acidic solution generates inactive amyloid-like fibrils, with a broad infrared peak appearing at 1,610-1,630 cm(-1), characteristic of a β-sheet rich structure. We report here that spontaneous refolding of these fibrils in water could be promoted by mid-infrared free-electron laser (mid-IR FEL) irradiation targeting the amide bands. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the fibrils reflected a β-sheet content that was as low as that of the native structure, following FEL irradiation at 1,620 cm(-1) (amide I band); both transmission-electron microscopy imaging and Congo Red assay results also demonstrated a reduced fibril structure, and the enzymatic activity of lysozyme fibrils recovered to 70-90 % of the native form. Both irradiations at 1,535 cm(-1)(amide II band) and 1,240 cm(-1) (amide III band) were also more effective for the refolding of the fibrils than mere heating in the absence of FEL. On the contrary, either irradiation at 1,100 or 2,000 cm(-1) afforded only about 60 % recovery of lysozyme activity. These results indicate that the specific FEL irradiation tuned to amide bands is efficient in refolding of lysozyme fibrils into native form.The Protein Journal 10/2012; · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Protein misfolding, self-assembly, and aggregation are an essential problem in cell biology, biotechnology, and biomedicine. The protein aggregates are very different morphologically varying from soluble amorphous aggregates to highly ordered amyloid-like fibrils. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the amino acid L-arginine (Arg), a widely used suppressor of protein aggregation, in the regulation of transformations of soluble aggregation-prone proteins into supramolecular structures of higher order. However, a striking potential of Arg to govern the initial events in the process of protein aggregation has been revealed under environment conditions where the protein aggregation in its absence was not observed. Using dynamic light scattering we have demonstrated that Arg (10-100 mM) dramatically accelerated the dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of acidic model proteins. The inhibitory effect on the protein aggregation was revealed at higher concentrations of Arg. Using atomic force microscopy it was shown that aggregation of α-lactalbumin from bovine milk induced upon addition of Arg reached a state of formation of supramolecular structures of non-fibrillar species profoundly differing from those of the individual protein in type, size, and shape. The interaction of another positively charged amino acid L-lysine with α-lactalbumin also resulted in profound acceleration of the aggregation process and transformation of supramolecular structures of the aggregates.Amino Acids 06/2013; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) aggregation is one of the pathological markers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. The underlying molecular grounds of SOD1 pathologic aggregation remains obscure as mutations alone are not exclusively the cause for the formation of protein inclusions. Thus, other components in the cell environment likely play a key role in triggering SOD1 toxic aggregation in ALS. Recently, it was found that ALS patients present a specific altered metabolomic profile in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) where SOD1 is also present and potentially interacts with metabolites. Here we have investigated how some of these small molecules affect apoSOD1 structure and aggregation propensity. Our results show that as co-solvents, the tested small molecules do not affect apoSOD1 thermal stability but do influence its tertiary interactions and dynamics, as evidenced by combined biophysical analysis and proteolytic susceptibility. Moreover, these compounds influence apoSOD1 aggregation, decreasing nucleation time and promoting the formation of larger and less soluble aggregates, and in some cases polymeric assemblies apparently composed by spherical species resembling the soluble native protein. We conclude that some components of the ALS metabolome that shape the chemical environment in the CSF may influence apoSOD1 conformers and aggregation.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(9):19128-45. · 2.46 Impact Factor