Inhibition of Aggregation of Amyloid β42 by Arginine-Containing Small Compounds

Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 1.06). 04/2012; 76(4):762-6. DOI: 10.1271/bbb.110879
Source: PubMed


Aggregations of proteins are in many cases associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's (AD). Small compounds capable of inhibiting protein aggregation are expected to be useful for not only in the treatment of disease but also in probing the structures of aggregated proteins. In previous studies using phage display, we found that arginine-rich short peptides consisting of four or seven amino acids bound to soluble 42-residue amyloid β (Aβ42) and inhibited globulomer (37/48 kDa oligomer) formation. In the present study, we searched for arginine-containing small molecules using the SciFinder searching service and tested their inhibitory activities against Aβ42 aggregation, by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE and thioflavine T binding assay. Commercially available Arg-Arg-7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin was found to exhibit remarkable inhibitory activities to the formation of the globulomer and the fibril of Aβ42. This chimera-type tri-peptide is expected to serve as the seed molecule of a potent inhibitor of the Aβ aggregation process.

16 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A119 peptide (LSNIDYILIKAS), derived from the mouse laminin α1 chain sequence (residues 1321-1332), promotes cell attachment, neurite outgrowth, and amyloid-like fibril formation. In this study, we evaluated the structural requirements of A119 for biological activities and amyloid-like fibril formation. The attachment of the cell to A119 was inhibited by heparin, and using syndecan- and glypican-overexpressed cells, it was determined that A119 specifically binds to syndecans. We also evaluated the critical residues for A119 activities using a set of alanine-substituted peptides. Cell attachment activity was significantly reduced in the Leu(1)-, Ser(2)-, Asn(3)-, Ile(4)-, Ile(7)-, Ile(9)-, and Lys(10)-substituted alanine peptides. Residues Ile(4), Ile(7), Ile(9), and Lys(10) were important for neurite outgrowth activity. Congo red staining and electron microscopic examination revealed that the Ile(4), Ile(7), Ile(9), and Ser(12) residues of A119 were required for amyloid-like fibril formation. These data suggest that the Ile residues are critical for the amyloid-like fibril formation, cell attachment, and neurite outgrowth activity of A119. Furthermore, an enantiomer of A119 showed similar amyloid-like fibril formation and increased levels of cell attachment and FAK signal transduction. These findings shed light on the mechanism of amyloid-like fibril formation and demonstrate a relationship between the ability to form amyloid-like fibrils and cell behavior.
    Biochemistry 09/2012; 51(41). DOI:10.1021/bi300822d · 3.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aggregation of lysozyme in an acidic solution generates inactive amyloid-like fibrils, with a broad infrared peak appearing at 1,610-1,630 cm(-1), characteristic of a β-sheet rich structure. We report here that spontaneous refolding of these fibrils in water could be promoted by mid-infrared free-electron laser (mid-IR FEL) irradiation targeting the amide bands. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum of the fibrils reflected a β-sheet content that was as low as that of the native structure, following FEL irradiation at 1,620 cm(-1) (amide I band); both transmission-electron microscopy imaging and Congo Red assay results also demonstrated a reduced fibril structure, and the enzymatic activity of lysozyme fibrils recovered to 70-90 % of the native form. Both irradiations at 1,535 cm(-1)(amide II band) and 1,240 cm(-1) (amide III band) were also more effective for the refolding of the fibrils than mere heating in the absence of FEL. On the contrary, either irradiation at 1,100 or 2,000 cm(-1) afforded only about 60 % recovery of lysozyme activity. These results indicate that the specific FEL irradiation tuned to amide bands is efficient in refolding of lysozyme fibrils into native form.
    The Protein Journal 10/2012; 31(8). DOI:10.1007/s10930-012-9452-3 · 0.91 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The assembly of naturally occurring amyloid peptides into cytotoxic oligomeric and fibrillar aggregates is believed to be a major pathologic event in over 25 human diseases. Blocking of or interfering with the aggregation of amyloid peptides such as amyloid-β (Aβ) using small organic molecules, peptides and peptidomimetics, and nanoparticles that selectively bind or inhibit Aβ aggregates is a promising strategy for the development of novel pharmaceutical approaches and agents to treat Alzheimer disease (AD). In a broad sense, considering many common features in structure, kinetics, and biological activity of amyloid peptides, potent inhibitors and associated inhibition strategies that are developed for targeting Aβ aggregation could also be generally applied to other amyloid-forming peptides in "protein-aggregation diseases". Due to the complex nature of Aβ self-assembly process, increasing knowledge in high-resolution structures of Aβ oligomers, atomic-level Aβ-inhibitor binding information, and cost-effective high-throughput screening method will improve our fundamental understanding of amyloid formation and inhibition mechanisms, as well as practical design of pharmaceutical strategies and drugs to treat AD. This review summarizes major findings, recent advances, and future challenges for the development of new Aβ-aggregation inhibitors, mainly focusing on three major classes of Aβ inhibitors with associated inhibition mechanisms and practical examples.
    Current pharmaceutical design 05/2013; 20(8). DOI:10.2174/13816128113199990068 · 3.45 Impact Factor
Show more