Cryptogenic stroke after percutaneous closure of an atrial septal defect

Department of Cardiology, St. Luke's Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece.
Hellenic journal of cardiology: HJC = Hellēnikē kardiologikē epitheōrēsē (Impact Factor: 1.23). 03/2012; 53(2):155-9.
Source: PubMed


We present the case of a patient who underwent a percutaneous secundum atrial septal defect (ASD II) closure with an undersized septal occluder device. One week and one month later she experienced two transient ischemic attacks. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed a residual patent foramen ovale (PFO) with a positive Valsalva bubble test. She underwent a second procedure under the 3D TEE guidance and the PFO was successfully closed percutaneously using a PFO occluder device that was attached to the ASD device. Accurate ASD and PFO morphology assessment and appropriate device selection are the key factors in the success of percutaneous closure. 3D TEE is an innovative diagnostic technique, providing a complete description of the cardiac defect and improving spatial orientation. Real-time 3D TEE is the appropriate guidance for successful and accurate positioning of the device.

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Available from: Dimitrios D Tsikaderis, Sep 18, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) and two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (2D TEE) are used in most centres for guiding transcatheter atrial septal defect (ASD) closure. ASDs have complex shapes that are not well characterized with 2D imaging. Real-time 3D TEE (RT3D TEE) provides en-face visualization of the ASD, allowing precise assessment of ASD dimensions. Accordingly, our aims were (i) to determine the feasibility of RT3D TEE to guide ASD closure and (ii) to compare ASD and balloon dimensions (BDs) using RT3D TEE vs. ICE and 2D TEE. Thirteen patients with ostium secundum ASD underwent transcatheter ASD closure. 2D TEE, RT3D TEE, and ICE images were acquired sequentially. RT3D TEE was feasible in all patients. Comparing RT3D TEE and 2D imaging, the mean difference in long-axis dimension was +0.5 mm (P= NS for both), and -1.4 mm in short-axis (2D TEE, P < 0.05; ICE, P = 0.06). BD was greater with 3D TEE vs. ICE (+0.9 mm). RT3D TEE can be used to guide transcatheter ASD closure with the advantages of lower cost than ICE, and ability to visualize en-face views of the ASD. ASD and BD as measured by RT3D TEE differ when compared with 2D imaging.
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    ABSTRACT: The maximal diameter of the defect and the dimensions of the septal rims are essential parameters for the selection of optimal cases for device closure. Neither two-dimensional echocardiography nor balloon catheter sizing provide optimal data. Unique three-dimensional echocardiography might help to improve patient selection and assessment of results. Our aim was to optimize transcatheter closure of secundum type atrial septal defects using three-dimensional echocardiography. Sixteen patients enrolled in a protocol for atrial septal defect transcatheter closure with the Cardioseal device underwent transoesophageal two- and three-dimensional echocardiography. Maximal diameter and tissue rim of the atrial septal defect were measured and compared by both methods. In the 12 patients selected for closure, the balloon stretched diameter was compared to three-dimensional echocardiography measurements. Device placement was assessed by two- and three-dimensional echocardiography. The shape of the atrial septal defect appeared variable on three-dimensional views: round in nine patients but complex (oval, raquet-shaped, multiple) in seven patients. The surface area of the atrial septal defect varied by 68+/-15% during the cardiac cycle. The correlation between atrial septal defect maximal diameters measured by two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography and three-dimensional echocardiography was better in round defects (y=1 x +1.6, r=0.99) than in complex defects (y=0.7 x -0.5, r=0.88). The antero-superior rim could only be properly assessed by three-dimensional echocardiography. In 12 patients the correlation between stretched diameter and three-dimensional echocardiography maximal diameter was poor (y=0.3 x +13, r=0.41). After placement of the device, three-dimensional echocardiography enabled the mechanism of residual shunting to be understood in three patients. Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiography enhances the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of atrial septal defect and should be an important process in future initiatives for device closures.
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