Photoacoustic mammography: initial clinical results.
ABSTRACT PURPOSE: Photoacoustic tomography can image the hemoglobin distribution and oxygenation state inside tissue with high spatial resolution. The purpose of this study is to investigate its clinical usefulness for diagnosis of breast cancer and evaluation of therapeutic response in relation to other diagnostic modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a prototype machine for photoacoustic mammography (PAM), 27 breast tumor lesions, including 21 invasive breast cancer (IBC), five ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and one phyllodes tumor, were measured. Nine out of twenty-one IBC patients had received primary systemic therapy (PST). RESULTS: Eight out of twelve IBC without PST were visible. Notably, detection was possible in all five cases with DCIS, whereas it was not in one case with phyllodes tumor. Seven out of nine IBC with PST were assigned as visible in spite of decreased size of tumor after PST. The mean value of hemoglobin saturation in the visible lesions was 78.6 %, and hemoglobin concentration was 207 μM. The tumor images of PAM were comparable to those of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that PAM can image tumor vascularity and oxygenation, which may be useful for diagnosis and characterization of breast cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: export.arxiv.org[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose: Photoacoustic imaging has proven to be able to detect vascularization-driven optical absorption contrast associated with tumors. In order to detect breast tumors located a few centimeter deep in tissue, a sensitive ultrasound detector is of crucial importance for photoacoustic mammography. Further, because the expected photoacoustic frequency bandwidth (a few MHz to tens of kHz) is inversely proportional to the dimensions of light absorbing structures (0.5-10+ mm), proper choices of materials and their geometries and proper considerations in design have to be made to implement optimal photoacoustic detectors. In this study, we design and evaluate a specialized ultrasound detector for photoacoustic mammography.Methods: Based on the required detector sensitivity and its frequency response, a selection of active material and matching layers and their geometries is made leading to functional detector models. By iteration between simulation of detector performances, fabrication and experimental characterization of functional models an optimized implementation is made and evaluated. For computer simulation, we use 1D Krimholtz-Leedom-Matthaei and 3D finite-element based models.Results: The experimental results of the designed first and second functional detectors matched with the simulations. In subsequent bare piezoelectric samples the effect of lateral resonances was addressed and their influence minimized by subdicing the samples. Consequently, using simulations, a final optimized detector was designed, with a center frequency of 1 MHz and a -6 dB bandwidth of 0.4-1.25 MHz (fractional bandwidth of ∼80%). The minimum detectable pressure was measured to be 0.5 Pa.Conclusions: A single-element, large-aperture, sensitive, and broadband detector is designed and developed for photoacoustic tomography of the breast. The detector should be capable of detecting vascularized tumors with 1-2 mm resolution. The minimum detectable pressure is 0.5 Pa, which will facilitate deeper imaging compared to the current systems. Further improvements by proper electrical grounding and shielding and implementation of this design into an arrayed detector will pave the way for clinical applications of photoacoustic mammography.Medical Physics 03/2013; 40(3):032901. · 2.91 Impact Factor