Rose oil (from Rosa × damascena Mill.) vapor attenuates depression-induced oxidative toxicity in rat brain
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress is a critical route of damage in various physiological stress-induced disorders, including depression. Rose oil may be a useful treatment for depression because it contains flavonoids which include free radical antioxidant compounds such as rutin and quercetin. We investigated the effects of absolute rose oil (from Rosa × damascena Mill.) and experimental depression on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in the cerebral cortex of rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was used as control, while depression was induced in the second group using chronic mild stress (CMS). Oral (1.5 ml/kg) and vapor (0.15 ml/kg) rose oil were given for 28 days to CMS depression-induced rats, constituting the third and fourth groups, respectively. The sucrose preference test was used weekly to identify depression-like phenotypes during the experiment. At the end of the experiment, cerebral cortex samples were taken from all groups. The lipid peroxidation levels in the cerebral cortex in the CMS group were higher than in control whereas their levels were decreased by rose oil vapor exposure. The vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C and β-carotene concentrations in the cerebral cortex were lower in the CMS group than in the control group whereas their concentrations were higher in the rose oil vapor plus CMS group. The CMS-induced antioxidant vitamin changes were not modulated by oral treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity and reduced glutathione did not change statistically in the four groups following CMS or either treatment. In conclusion, experimental depression is associated with elevated oxidative stress while treatment with rose oil vapor induced protective effects on oxidative stress in depression.
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ABSTRACT: Free radicals induced by traumatic brain injury have deleterious effects on the function and antioxidant vitamin levels of several organ systems including the brain. Melatonin possesses antioxidant effect on the brain by maintaining antioxidant enzyme and vitamin levels. We investigated the effects of melatonin on antioxidant ability in the cerebral cortex and blood of traumatic brain injury rats. Results showed that the cerebral cortex β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, and erythrocyte reduced glutathione levels, and plasma vitamin C level were decreased by traumatic brain injury whereas they were increased following melatonin treatment. In conclusion, melatonin seems to have protective effects on traumatic brain injury-induced cerebral cortex and blood toxicity by inhibiting free radical formation and supporting antioxidant vitamin redox system.Neural Regeneration Research 06/2014; 9(11):1112-6. DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.135312 · 0.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study was planned to investigate the protective effects of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) supplementation against aluminium chloride (AlCl3)-induced oxidative damage in liver and erythrocytes of rats. Simultaneously, a preliminary phytochemical study was affected in order to characterize the bioactive components containing in the NSO using chemical assays. The antioxidant capacities of NSO were evaluated by DPPH assay. The results showed that NSO was found to contain large amounts of total phenolics, flavonoids and tannins. Twenty-four rats were equally divided into two groups, in which group A received standard diet, whereas group B treated daily with an oral gavage dose of 2 ml NSO/kg body weight. After 5 weeks pretreatment, both groups were divided again into two subgroups (A and B) of six animals each and treated for other 3 weeks. Therefore, subgroup A1 was served as a control which received standard diet, but subgroup A2 received AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bw mixed with food). Subgroup B1 received both AlCl3 and NSO; however, subgroup B2 received NSO only. Results showed that AlCl3 exhibited an increase in white blood cell counts and a marked decrease in erythrocyte counts and haemoglobin content. Plasma aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase activities and total bilirubin concentration were higher in AlCl3 group than those of the control, while albumin and total protein concentration were significantly lower. Compared to the control, a significant raise of hepatic and erythrocyte malondialdehyde level associated with a decrease in reduced glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, activities of AlCl3 treated rats. However, the administration of NSO alone or combined with AlCl3 has improved the status of all parameters studied. It can be concluded that AlCl3 has induced the oxidative stress, altered the biochemical parameters and the hepatic histological profile, but the supplementation of NSO has alleviated such toxicity.Biological Trace Element Research 08/2014; 162(1-3). DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-0114-5 · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iron is a component of several metalloproteins involved in crucial metabolic processes such as oxygen sensing and transport, energy metabolism, and DNA synthesis. This metal progressively accumulates in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Naringenin (NGEN), a natural flavonoid compound, has been reported to possess neuroprotective effect against PD-related pathology, however, the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are poorly defined. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the potential mechanism involved in the cytoprotection of NGEN against iron-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex of Wistar rats. Animals that were given repetitive injections of iron dextran for a total of 4 weeks showed a significant increase in lipid and protein markers such as thiobarbituric reactive acid substances, protein carbonyl product content levels, and DNA apoptosis in the cerebral cortex. These changes were accompanied by a decrease of enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase and catalase and in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants like total thiols and ascorbic acid. The activity of glutathione peroxidase remained unchanged in rats. A significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities was also shown, with a substantial rise in the nitric oxide levels. Coadministration of NGEN to iron-treated rats significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated oxidative damages observed in the cerebral cortex. The potential effect of NGEN to prevent iron-induced neurotoxicity was also reflected by the microscopic study, indicative of its neuroprotective effects.Biological trace element research 03/2014; DOI:10.1007/s12011-014-9948-0 · 1.61 Impact Factor